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I'm forever chasing windmills.

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    "History is not a succession of events but a segment of human life," 
    quoted by David Starr Jordan in reference to his mentor, 
    Andrew Dickson White

    (Read Part I and Part II)
    The Big Picture
    By Linda Minor

    Ruth Hyde Paine's Grandfather
    William Fletcher Hyde

    Martha Constance Smith Hyde, described more fully in the previous segment, arrived in Palo Alto, California, in 1898 from Chicago. Although she had a Ph.D. and did additional graduate study at the University of California at Berkeley and at Stanford, she seems to have sacrificed all those years of education when she married William F. Hyde in 1900. Only a year after they married William Avery Hyde was born, and before long, another son, Theodore, undoubtedly named for President Theodore Roosevelt, who spent time in California. Sylvia Alden Hyde, the third child, was born in 1907.

    Although W.F. Hyde seems to have tried to become a miner in 1896, it was short-lived, since he never completed an engineering degree. Instead, he relocated to Palo Alto, evidenced by a letter written to Mrs. Leland Stanford in 1898, as manager of the Stanford bookstore. He held a similar position at University of the Pacific before his attempt at mining. His move to Palo Alto occurred three years after future U.S. President Herbert Hoover had been in Stanford's first graduating class (1894).
    W.P. Hyde moved to Lincoln Ave. residence in 1899.

    Census records of William Fletcher Hyde family in Palo Alto: 1900, 1910, 1920 and 1930.

    The Birth of Stanford and Palo Alto

    Although George Washington had admonished his countrymen to "steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world," when he left office in 1796, he also advised that "just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated." Herbert Hoover, a member of Leland Stanford Junior University's first graduating class of 1894, embodied those feelings during his career. He studied geology under John Casper Branner, who was destined to become Stanford's second president in 1917.

    Hoover family in 1917
    As the Hoovers settled themselves into Palo Alto life, Herbert Hoover was contacted by President Wilson's Ambassador to the Court of St. James in London, Walter Hines Page, to assist Europe in finding gold to finance the war. He took his family with him briefly until Germany invaded Belgium in August 1914. Then the boys returned to school in Palo Alto (the 1920 census shows them living on Cabrillo Avenue, near Dolores Street, close to where they contracted to build their mansion at 623 Mirada).

    South of the Stanford Quad, the Hoover home was about two miles from the new Palo Alto High School, which opened in 1918. Channing grammar school was less than a mile from the Hyde residence on Lincoln Avenue. Since these were the only public schools, it is impossible that William Avery Hyde, Ruth's father, eldest of the children of W.F. and Martha Smith Hyde, was not acquainted with both Herbert Hoover, Jr. and his younger brother, Allan H. Hoover, born in 1903 and 1907 respectively.

    President Jordan
    As the United States had grown, it experienced one financial panic after another--the result of not having a central bank in charge of monetary policy. Both the Bank of the U.S. and the Second Bank of the U.S., envisioned by Alexander Hamilton, had been killed by policies instigated by Andrew Jackson before the civil war. Hope had been renewed by discovery of gold in California and Colorado, but still investment in infrastructure required money, much of which was sought from Europeans who bought stocks and bonds issued by American banking houses.

    Leland Stanford, one the "Big Four," who built Abraham Lincoln's Central Pacific Railroad, had become wealthy in California by the time his son died in 1884. He and his wife decided to create Leland Stanford Junior University in his memory and consulted Andrew Dickson White, who had built Cornell in Ithaca, New York, staffed with elite Skull and Bones graduates of Yale, White's alma mater. White highly recommended that the Stanfords offer the job as Stanford's first president to David Starr Jordan.

    Leland Stanford did not live to see the first graduating class cross the podium. He died in 1893, and the endowment continued to be controlled by his wife, the former Jane Lathrop, with whom Jordan worked very closely to ensure the university would survive during the difficult years resulting from the financial panic of 1893. Working with them was Timothy Hopkins, appointed a trustee in 1885; he was the adopted son of Mrs. Mark Hopkins, wife of Stanford's former partner in the Southern Pacific Railroad, though he received no inheritance from her when she died in 1891.

    Only in the new century did the assurance come that the university would survive, at the time of Jane's death (1905), when the endowment received the anticipated funds from her estate:
    In June 1903, Jane transferred control of the university’s endowment to the Board of Trustees, and she urged the board to increase graduate enrollment and support research and teaching. However, it was only with her death in February 1905 in Honolulu [allegedly from strychnine poisoning]# that the transfer of powers was legalized, and funds continued to flow to the construction of several significant buildings through 1905.
    Stanford's "World View"

    Jordan was a young man of 40 when he assumed the presidency. An ichthyologist (student of fish), he had studied at Cornell before assuming presidency of Indiana University at the age of 34.

    Some of Jordan's papers, labeled "Peace Collection," note that he was president of the World Peace Foundation from 1910 to 1914 and president of the World Peace Conference in 1915; these papers were donated to the Quaker college at Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Jordan retired from Stanford in 1916, remain in the public eye until 1925. His death in Palo Alto occurred in 1931, while his friend Herbert Hoover was U.S. President. An obituary referred to him as the "chief director" of the World Peace Conference. In 1922 Jordan dedicated his selected essays entitled War and the Breed: the Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations to Andrew Dickson White, "who taught me to see in history, not a succession of events but a segment of human life."
    The World Peace Foundation was the American section of a broader movement for international peace at that time, one goal being the expansion of the league of nations and the Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration to settle international disputes. One advocate of this Court was the grandfather of John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles--John Watson Foster--who was on the Advisory Council of the World Peace Foundation with David Starr Jordan. As Foster related in his history of the Hague Peace Conference, among the Americans present in 1899 was Jordan's mentor, Andrew D. White.

    White, as first president of Cornell University, also acted as a behind-the-scenes mentor of the man given credit for putting together the coalition that in 1912 elected President Woodrow Wilson--"Colonel" Edward M. House of Texas, who attended Cornell in the mid 1870's but never graduated.

    By the time Ruth Paine's grandfather moved to Palo Alto in 1897, Hoover had jumped into his mining career on the international stage, and was determined to assist his somewhat older brother, Tad, in completing his degree in mining engineering at the same college.

    As his biographer Will Irwin reported, in 1899 Herbert married Lou Henry, and together they set out to the Far East, where they found themselves at Tianjin in the midst of the Boxer Rebellion in China. From there they would move to London where two sons would be born. By 1909 the Hoovers were able to return at least several months a year to the United States, much of it in Palo Alto, especially by 1912. As Europe became more involved in war, requiring gold as payment for arms, munitions and other necessities, Herbert Hoover remained on call for globe-trotting assignments in search of such gold, although in 1912 he became one of Stanford's trustees. The Hoover sons were enrolled in school in Palo Alto, undoubtedly the same school as the children of W.F. Hyde.+

    Theodore Jesse (Tad) Hoover entered Stanford in the same class with W.F. Hyde's younger brother, James McDonald Hyde in 1897, and they not only graduated together in the class of 1901, but in 1919  both were named Stanford professors. They had spent the intervening years, much as Herbert Hoover had, traversing the world in search of gold and other precious metals. Dr. Branner continued to head the geology department until President Jordan's retirement in 1918, succeeding him in that position the following year. Tad Hoover got his place heading the geology department, with James Hyde as his chief associate.

    Good Government and Career Changes

    William Fletcher Hyde, father of W.A. Hyde

    Like Forrest Gump, William Fletcher Hyde was in Palo Alto, California during the above events, though he was quite invisible to historians.  A photograph of the Carnegie public library in Palo Alto can be seen online.

    In addition to working with library and bookseller groups (see clipping to left), W.F. also was involved as a delegate to local and state Republican Party conventions as early as August, 1906, when he and Marshall Black were elected to attend the California state Republican convention. Black, head of Palo Alto Mutual Building and Loan Association, served as state senator, and was so wealthy by 1903 he built the historic mansion in nearby Menlo Park recently purchased by Mark Zuckerberg. By 1912, however, Black was accused of irregularities that led to his conviction and imprisonment. We can only wonder whether W.F. Hyde, who served on five grand juries over the years, had a role in seeing this associate sent to jail.

    As elections rolled around in November 1906, Hyde helped to write a constitution for the Palo Alto "Good Government League" with several men with strong business connections --Dr. Jefferson Elmore (Stanford Latin professor), Walter E. Vail (life insurance agent), Dr. C. W. Decker (physician), and Constable Fred B. Simpson. Various Hyde family members are listed on page 62 of the 1915 city directory, with W.F. Hyde being conspicuously absent at that time. We do, however, find him listed in 1918 as an employee of Underwood & Underwood in Los Altos under the heading "stereoscopic views." According to Taylor & Francis:
    By 1900, Underwood and Underwood, the largest company in the United States, was turning out 35,000 stereograph cards daily and 10 million yearly (Darrah 1977, 47). The large-scale production and distribution of stereographs enabled them to become a mass-distributed visual source of information consumed for a variety of purposes, such as entertainment, education and propaganda (Speer 1989, 301).
    1922 ad
    In about 1913, however, the Hyde Book Store in Palo Alto was operated by his brother, Edward L. Hyde and his wife, the former Lauretta Coe Foster. By 1920 William Fletcher had become an insurance agent and began to sell real estate as well. In fact, when the Hoover family in 1930 gave up their 15-room residence at Stanford's "San Juan Hill," the realtor who listed it for rent was none other than W.F. Hyde.

    Carol Hyde Meets W.F. Hyde

    As mentioned in Part I, Carol was descended from the original Hyde ancestor as William Avery, but from a different branch. Her parents entered the ministry when Charles Ludlow Hyde, her father, was 35 and graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio. By 1916, however, after being sent to churches in Colorado and California, he had seemingly tired of the ministry. According to an item that appeared in several United Press news carriers in July 1916:
    Another strange case is that of Rev. Charles L. Hyde of Niles, Cal., who wants to give up his pastorate at the First Congregational church there and go to work as a farm hand or on a poultry ranch.
    Nevertheless, Rev. Hyde had the last laugh on the press, since the 1920 census finds him employed as the secretary of a poultry association in Palo Alto, California. As the item to the right shows, once they moved to the Palo Alto area, the Charles L. Hydes became acquainted with the W.F. Hydes at the local Congregational Church. Carol's mother played the organ, while Charles and William Fletcher sang bass in the choir. Carol was an alto, but William Avery was nowhere to be found. Most likely it was Carol Hyde Hyde who encouraged her youngest daughter Ruth to take up folk singing and dancing, where as it turned out she would meet her husband, Michael Ralph Paine in Philadelphia prior to their marriage in 1957.

    Like his son's new father-in-law, William Fletcher Hyde would also experience an abrupt change in his career during the years prior to or during WWI, at a time the couple had three young children ranging in age from six to ten years old. He had served as president and trustee of the Palo Alto Public Library for many years, and his sisters were librarians, Mary  at the San Francisco public library and Lillian at Stanford. W.F. also was a trustee for the California state library association. Though he could not have known then that Herbert Hoover would become U.S. President in 1928, he most likely knew that Herbert Clark Hoover was his younger brother's employer, and it is possible that, through that connection, W.F. felt greener pastures were in store for him.

    James McDonald Hyde, had graduated from Stanford in 1901, and by 1903 had a teaching job at the University of Oregon. Then in 1910 he went to London to work for Herbert Hoover's brother Tad, whom James had known in college. Tad, actually Theodore Jesse Hoover, had been manager of Minerals Separation, Ltd., since 1907, but left soon after installing James at the company. While there, James had a disagreement with another Stanford geologist named Edward Nutter, but left within a year to work in Montana. Minerals Separated, Ltd. then sued James for infringing one of its patents. When the case came to trial in Montana in 1912, the Hoover brothers were the chief witnesses on James' behalf. The case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court on appeal in 1915. A portion of James'testimony is excerpted to the left.

    The 1920 census record shown above indicates the W.F. Hyde family lived in Los Altos, Santa Clara County, that year, with W.F. engaged in insurance and real estate. He had also become involved with the Los Altos Improvement Club. The eldest child, William Avery, was 17 and looking forward to attending Stanford University soon--almost at the same time his father starting selling insurance and real estate. While he was a student, his mother died at the young age of 53.

    In 1932 William Avery Hyde's aunt, Sylvia Hyde, was an art instructor at San Jose State College. She and Theodore Hyde, neither of whom had married, continued, after their mother's death, to live in the three-story residence at 334 Lincoln, even after their father's death in 1939. Sylvia most likely developed her interest in art from her aunt, Bessie Hyde Kennedy, who also lived in the large residence until her own death in 1944.

    Sylvia worked from home as an artist and also worked in her father's insurance/real estate office, and at 310 University Avenue, Menlo Park. This address was the same as the University Realty Co., just a few doors from the Hyde Bookstore of Edward L. Hyde at 362 University (either the location or the street numbering changed). Edward's wife, Lauretta was the daughter of Harrison Streeter Coe, a 1903 Stanford mining graduate, who filed a patent for an invention like the one J.M. Hyde had been sued for infringing.

    By 1943, she was hired as a teacher at Grant Union High School and had moved to Del Paso Heights north of Sacramento. Sylvia later married Otto V. [von Thulen] Rhoades at some point after he divorced in the 1930's, and she continued to correspond with her nephew and visit with him on infrequent visits in California; she only recalled meeting Ruth on two occasions. Theodore Hyde died in Walnut Creek, California in 1991. Nothing else about these siblings of William Avery Hyde has been discovered.

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    "The first casualty when war comes is truth."
    Quote from California Governor Hiram W. Johnson

    (Read Part I and Part II, PART III)

    Part IV
    The Big Picture
    By Linda Minor

    Reform Politics in Palo Alto

    Good Government League banquet in 1909
    During his childhood and college years, William Avery Hyde was inculcated with values learned from his father, a seemingly honest and dedicated businessman who practiced the virtues of self-government for the benefit of his entire community. As manager of the Stanford bookstore, he took an avid interest, not only in selling books, but in operating free libraries. As president of the Palo Alto Civic League, as well as chief executive of the commission government of the city, he also helped his city build and run its own public power and electric plant, to the considerable ire of Pacific Gas & Electric, a corporation which desired to add the city to its own profit base. He served on the legislative standing committee of the statewide League of California Municipalities (1910-11).

    All these events transpired within the context of the "reform" administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, who took office after William McKinley's assassination and left reluctantly in 1913 as Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated.

    W.F. Hyde's name appeared in local newspapers in association with other civic leaders. In August 1906 the San Francisco Call announced:
    A new Republican club was organized here last night. Judge S. W. Charles acted as temporary chairman and W. R. Allen as secretary-treasurer. A committee of six was named to prepare a ticket of prospective delegates for the primaries. This committee consisted of B. P. Oakford, Marshall Black. W. F. Hyde, F. B. Simpson, John D. Boyd, F. L. Crandall and S. W. Charles. The ticket, that this body brought before the meeting was made up as follows: Delegates to the State Convention. Marshall Black and W. F. Hyde; delegates to the Congressional Convention, John D. Boyd and Dr. John C. Spencer. The delegates to the County Convention are: Precinct I— W. D. Cashel, W. B. Allen, Professor H. W. Rolfe, B. P. Oakford, A. N. Umphreys; Precinct 2— F. A. Marriot, F. B. Simpson, Dr. C. W. Decker, E. E. Peck and Professor R. E. Swain.
    Another announcement appeared in the November 3, 1906, San Francisco Call:
     PALO ALTO, Nov. 2.— Citizens interested in good government met in Fraternity Hall annex last evening and formed the Civic League of Palo Alto. The meeting followed a preliminary conference, at which W. F. Hyde, W. E. K. Vail and Dr. C. W. Decker were authorized to draft a set of by-laws and issue a call for a meeting. The league's object is purely civic and it will not engage in furthering the interests of any religious sect or political organization. The constitution among other things provides that the league is formed to insure a more perfect administration of municipal affairs; to promote the general welfare and prosperity of the city, to secure such State legislation, as the interests of the city may from time to time require and to arouse a more widely extended interest in local municipal legislation and administration. A committee of nine will compose the active working body of the league five of whom were appointed at the meeting last night. They are W. F. Hyde, Professor Elmore, Walter E. Vail, Dr. C. W. Decker and Fred B. Simpson.
    Almost a year later, the new Civic League would experience an incident that was written up into the Call as though a major scandal had occurred:
    San Francisco Call - November 24, 1907
    Suspicion That There Is Something Wrong Exists in Minds
         PALO ALTO, Nov. 23.— Scantily clothed insinuations of graft stuck their ugly heads out of the ruck of discussion at a mass meeting of the city fathers— and mothers— held in the old Presbyterian church here last night. One other thing also noticeably protruded, the unpopularity of Edward P. E. Troy of San Francisco.
         One of the speakers suggested the reading of an open letter from Troy to the president of the Civic league and the very mention of the hated name brought out such a storm of protest that the presiding officer, W.F. Hyde, took refuge in compromise and promised not to read the letter, but to give it to the press. 
         For the best part of two hours those present sat with their hands to their ears figuratively speaking, while they attempted to learn from the successive speakers exactly what the financial condition for the city is at present. Out of the turmoil and talk came the conviction that the city's system of book keeping is in sad need of fixing.
         The Palo Alto Civic league was hard at work and President Hyde made plain that rapid action was imperative in view of the financial report filed by Town Clerk [John D.] Boyd. Things are very much awry in Palo Alto. The city owns its own water works and lighting plant, and the terrors of municipal ownership stare it in the face. These are the main points in the president's talk. Then he introduced A. A. Young, professor of economics at Stanford university.
         "System, always system, and lots of book keeping, coupled with constant watchfulness, is the price a city has to pay for owning its own public utilities," said Professor Young. He added that only the most, careful book keeping , and strict attention to details would serve to scare graft away from such a city.
         "Where is that surplus the present board started with?" cried Trustee William Dean, when he secured the attention of the chairman. "There were $75,000 in hand then. Where is it? What has become of the $200,000 the city has spent in the last 18 months?"
         "There is nothing to show for it save debts," he went on. He also demanded the cause of the order issued by some of the members of the present board forbidding the trustees to sell electric current outside of the city. 
         "It looks like protection of private interests to me," he finished.
         Then came the incident of the Troy letter which nearly caused the gathering to break up in confusion. Dr. C. W. Decker, started it by asking that the letter, which contained strictures on the present board, be read in meeting. J.F. Bixbee jumped to his feet, shouting a protest against it. 
         "It would be an insult to this assemblage to read that letter. If Troy came into my office, I'd kick him out. No I won't ---he's too little— but I would get rid of him somehow." Bixbee said.
    Through the above excerpts William Fletcher Hyde is revealed as a hard-working reformer in the mold of liberal Christians of that era. Edward P.E. Troy was just such a man. A Californian, Troy advocated the passage of the single tax program proposed much earlier by Henry George's Christian Socialist movement. Whether or not he wrote the open letter to President Hyde of the Palo Alto Civic League because they were acquainted with each other or not, what is notable is how much vehemence was expressed in the objection to his letter's being read at that meeting.

    In July of 1909 at the California Republic Convention, W.F. Hyde was one of the delegates who voted unanimously in favor of the following:
    Resolved, that we pledge the Lincoln-Roosevelt league delegates to the several conventions to nominate an able and conscientious republican to represent the people of the the Fifth congressional district of the state of California in the United States congress, a candidate free from the control of the Southern Pacific railroad, or any other special interest, and pledged to represent the people of California; also to nominate as a candidate to the legislature such a man as can be relied upon to vote and work for the election as United States senator of a clean republican, not controlled by or affiliated with the Southern Pacific railroad, or any other special interest, and in full sympathy and accord with the principles of this league and the policies of President Roosevelt;  ...
    Among the other speakers who pointed out the aims and ideals of the organization were State Senator Marshall Black and Richard Keating. The balloting for delegates at the various conventions resulted as follows: For the county convention — Charles Baker, J. T. Coulthard. W. F. Hyde. Richard Keating, Fernando Sanford. H. W. Simkins W. H. Sloan, John C. Spencer. A. N. Humphreys. A. G. Walker. C. B. Wing: for the congressional convention — E. D. Mosher, B. P. Oakford; for the state convention— E. P. Cashel, Edward Ackley.
    Hyde's politics seems in alignment with the Republican governor of that era, reformer Hiram W. Johnson, a supporter of the Progressive wing of Republicans who, by bolting from the Repubican convention in 1912, played a part in electing Democrat Woodrow Wilson rather than the Bonesman, William Howard Taft, who had been TR's chosen vice president and successor, to the Presidency. Taft's father, Alphonso, had in fact co-founded Skull and Bones at Yale in 1823, along with William H. Russell, while the son had spent years on the Philippine Commission with W. Cameron Forbes, overseeing America's colonial empire.
    Hiram Warren Johnson was born in Sacramento, September 2, 1866, the son of Grove and Annie (De Montfredy) Johnson. He was educated in the Sacramento public schools and attended the University of California at Berkeley. He left in 1886, in his junior year, to marry Minnie L. McNeal. He studied law in his father's law office, was admitted to the bar in 1888, and practiced in Sacramento. In 1894 he and his brother, Albert, managed their father's first congressional campaign. However, they opposed him in his bid for re-election and backed a reform group. The political rivalry estranged father and sons for many years.

    In 1902 Johnson went to San Francisco to practice law. In 1908 he was selected to take the place of Francis Heney, after the latter was shot during the prosecution of the graft trials, and secured a conviction against Abraham Reuf[sic] for bribery. At this time Johnson came to the attention of the state reform element and enhanced his anti-machine reputation by his dynamic speeches before the Lincoln-Roosevelt Republican League.

    By 1910 he was the acknowledged leader of the progressive movement in the state, and in November he was elected Governor. In 1912, he led the California delegation to the Republican convention in Chicago, and, with Theodore Roosevelt and other Progressives, bolted the convention after the renomination of President William H. Taft. Johnson then became the vice-presidential nominee of the newly formed Progressive Party. In 1914, he was re-elected Governor and in November 1916, he was elected to the U.S. Senate. On March 17, 1917, he resigned his state office and went to Washington.

    Johnson served as a U.S. Senator from California for five terms, 1917-1945. During this time he maintained his image as a progressive reformer by his sponsorship of the Boulder Dam project, through investigations into the labor conditions in the West Virginia coal mines, by his attack on the power of private utilities, and through his strong support of the public works projects in the New Deal era. In the field of foreign relations, Johnson's stands were always highlighted by a vigorous nationalistic spirit, and he was popularly termed an "isolationist".

    The coming of World War II brought Johnson into a headlong clash with Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. The disintegration of American neutrality alarmed Johnson and led him into a bitter losing battle from which he never recovered. Once the war began he gave it full support, but his failing health kept him more and more from the active business of the Senate. He died in Bethesda Naval Hospital on August 6, 1945.
    At this point it should be mentioned, with reference to Skull and Bones, that Stanford University was linked to that secret society from inception as a result of Leland and Jane Stanfords' consultation with Cornell president Andrew Dickson White, who advised them to select David Starr Jordan as the first president of their university.  Jordan, in his eulogy at the death of Jane Stanford, stated:
    I first saw the Governor and Mrs. Stanford at Bloomington, Indiana, in March 1891. At that time, Governor Stanford, under the advice of Andrew D. White, the President of Cornell, asked me to come to California to take charge of the new institution he was soon to open.
    The Bibles about Skull and Bones
    Readers were first made aware of the role Andrew Dickson White played in expanding the influence of the order of Skull and Bones by Antony C. Sutton in his book America's Secret Establishment. Kris Millegan reprinted Sutton's book and also published his own research into the Order--Fleshing Out Skull and Bones. According to Corey Earle's "The Secret Life of A.D. White," published in the Cornell Daily Sun, February 28, 2007:
    Andrew Dickson White, the co-founder of Cornell, had graduated from Yale in 1853, where he edited the Yale Literary Magazine, rowed on the crew team, joined multiple fraternities and won numerous oratory and literary awards. At the conclusion of his junior year, he was one of fifteen students tapped for Skull and Bones, an organization surrounded with intrigue and mystery.
    White was crucial in developing the educational ideals upon which Cornell was based. It was White who convinced Ezra Cornell not to donate his wealth to an already existing upstate New York college, and White who proposed the State Senate bill for Cornell University’s establishment. He was elected the school’s first president, serving from 1866 [at age 31!] to 1885. After his resignation, he remained involved in the University, participating as a trustee and adviser until his death in 1918.

    Both White and Cornell were good friends with an Ithaca native and Skull and Bones member (or Bonesman), Francis Miles Finch. Upon Cornell’s founding, Finch became a charter trustee, legal adviser, lecturer and later, dean of the Cornell Law School. Was Finch’s involvement in Cornell’s founding related to his common allegiance with White? Or, was it simply due to his residence in Ithaca? But the plot thickens as Yale alumni joined the fledgling Cornell faculty.…

    In 1867, as Cornell’s trustees attempted to gather a faculty, the first name proposed by White was Evan W. Evans, another Bonesman. Evans would become the first official faculty member of Cornell University. Shortly thereafter, the first Cornell professor of physics was appointed, Bonesman Eli W. Blake. This pattern would continue for the remainder of White’s reign.

    In 1870, the professor of Latin was fired for drunkenness, and Bonesman Tracy Peck was hired. In 1881, Bonesman Moses Coit Tyler was hired by the University as the country’s first chair of American history. Tyler’s biography reveals that he met White at a Skull and Bones meeting when Tyler was a senior and White was a graduate student. According to correspondence, White offered Tyler a professorship as early as 1871, and even asked if he would consider being Cornell’s president in 1880.

    Daniel H. Chamberlain, Bonesman and former governor of South Carolina, was hired to the law faculty in 1883. When Cornell’s School of Philosophy was created in 1890, the first person hired was a local Ithacan and Bonesman, Charles M. Tyler. History indicates that he was first considered for the faculty in 1881, when White was still president.

    Oliver H. Payne
    With the founding of Cornell Medical College in New York City in 1898, four Bonesmen physicians were hired nearly simultaneously. Coincidence? A further look reveals that the medical school was endowed by Oliver H. Payne, a Yale alumnus who left school early to enlist in the Civil War. However, Payne’s brother-in-law [William Collins Whitney] was a Bonesman whose two sons would also become Bonesmen. The founding faculty also included Lewis A. Stimson (father of Henry L. Stimson, a Bonesman who would become Secretary of War and Secretary of State) and W. Gilman Thompson, a nephew of Bonesman Daniel Coit Gilman.

    Gilman was actually one of President White’s closest associates at Yale. When Johns Hopkins University was founded in the 1870s, its trustees approached White for help in finding a university president. Correspondence between White and Gilman shows that they discussed the matter, calling it the “Baltimore scheme” since the Hopkins trustees were based in that city. The “scheme” was successful, and Gilman served as Johns Hopkins University’s first president from 1875 to 1901. Gilman did his part by hiring Bonesman William Henry Welch to the faculty in 1884 and appointing him first dean of the School of Medicine in 1893.

    Interestingly, White was publicly silent about his membership in Skull and Bones. His voluminous autobiography fails to mention it, despite a full chapter on his activities at Yale. White’s own diary, spread across sixty-nine volumes, disappeared after his death. It wasn’t until 1951 that a Cornell librarian discovered it locked in a suitcase and hidden in the library stacks, surrounded by books. Concealed with the diaries was an especially unique item: White’s personal Skull and Bones membership book. Was the Bones book hidden by White himself?

    White’s experiences with Yale’s oldest and most prestigious secret society clearly influenced him heavily. While a professor at Michigan, he allegedly founded a similar organization called The Owls, and he encouraged the creation of a society system at Cornell University. He would later serve as U.S. ambassador to Germany and Russia, both popular positions for Skull and Bones members. Bones founder, Alphonso Taft, was ambassador to Russia less than a decade before White.
    Was Andrew Dickson White acting in the interests of Skull and Bones while serving as president of Cornell University?

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    Bagley's testimony at HSCA
    Every generation has its own secrets it would like to keep buried. What do those secrets reveal about our forefathers? Were they complicit in high crimes or only misdemeanors? Did they have good intentions that, only in retrospect, appear to be unforgivable? There were many secrets buried in the backyards of Tennent "Pete" Bagley's family members. Not even he knew what they were, because his many uncles had undoubtedly taken oaths of confidentiality not to discuss their business with family members without clearances. Pete must have wondered about such secrets before he would come face-to-face with the biggest test of his career. 

    On June 8, 1962, Yuri Nosenko, a security officer in Geneva with the Soviet delegation attending a disarmament conference, passed a note to an American diplomat, who immediately contacted the second secretary at the American Embassy in Bern, Switzerland. That diplomat was actually Pete Bagley, then 36-years-old, a C.I.A. agent clandestinely assigned to the  Soviet division. 

    (Read Part I and Part II, PART III, Part IV)

    Part V
    The Big Picture
    By Linda Minor
    One Memorandum Dredges Up Much History

    Memo to Mr. Bielefeldt, C/FDD at CIA
    Approximately six weeks after John F. Kennedy was murdered in Dallas, Texas, Lee H. Wigren of C/SR/CI/ Research section the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) typed a memo addressed to the attention of "Mr. Bielefeldt," in the CIA section called C/FDD -- the Foreign Documents Division.
    Wigren's research department for counterintelligence (CI) was ultimately headed by Tennent "Pete" Bagley:
    Bagley was the chief counterspy for the Soviet Russia [SR] division, and had been stationed in Switzerland (eventually to become station chief) during the time [March 1959] that Oswald was due to attend Albert Schweitzer College.[ 69 ] Bagley had been transferred from Berne to Langley where he gained a rapid promotion to become C/SR/CI.
    Pete Bagley'sBaggage: Uncle Josephus

    Pete Bagley, CIA

    In 1950, when he joined the CIA, Pete Bagley was a youthful 26 years old. He undoubtedly had been groomed from birth for the role he was to play in international spy games. His given names came from his mother's father, Tennent Harrington, cashier of the Colusa County Bank in California. As a teen, his mother, Marie Louise Harrington, traveled frequently with with her maternal aunt and uncle, Commander William D. Leahy, to Washington, D.C., and was introduced to an array of naval officers there.

    Although she may have met Lieutenant Commander David Worth Bagley, whom she married in 1918, in Washington, one wedding  announcement indicates they had in fact met in Newport, R.I., the upper crust resort to which Marie Louise had traveled with a paternal aunt and uncle, Admiral Albert Parker Niblack.

    In Pete's parents' wedding announcement in the Washington Post (right) toward the end of WWI, the groom, David Worth Bagley, was revealed as a brother of Adelaide Bagley Daniels, wife of Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels.

    As a matter of fact, Daniels (editor of a Democrat-financed newspaper in Raleigh, N.C.) had published in 1898 a biography of his wife's older brother, Ensign Worth Bagley, the first Navy officer killed in action during the Spanish-American War, and Adelaide would name David's brother Worth Bagley Daniels after the war hero.

    Secretary Daniels first entered appointive political office in 1893 when another southerner, M. Hoke Smith, a railroad reformer and champion of  farmers, selected him to work in Grover Cleveland's Interior Department, a position he would hold for only a year. After purchasing controlling interest in the Raleigh News and Observer and in 1905, however, he perfected his political writing skill and was chosen in 1912 to head the "publicity bureau" of the Wilson campaign. Since Wilson's campaign was controlled by Edward M. House of Texas, Daniels no doubt had acquired the attention of the "Colonel" himself. After the campaign he was rewarded with the job as Secretary of the Navy, probably because of his wife's close ties to Naval officers.

    Although Daniels left office in 1921, his propaganda efforts continued. His wife worked with Mrs. Robert Lansing, wife of the Secretary of State, in sponsoring the first National Conference of Church Women in Washington, D.C. in 1920. The Interchurch World Movement's division for "Women's Activities," organized by Adelaide Worth Daniels and Eleanor Foster Lansing and other wives in the administration of Woodrow Wilson, also had help from Mesdames John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Henry P. Davison. This "women's work" allowed their husbands to gather unofficial intelligence through the State Department, the Rockefeller Foundation, the American and International Red Cross Societies, and Protestant church-related foreign missionary groups, which allied themselves with Friends' organizations, the YMCA, and "war work councils". There was no official civilian intelligence agency in those days.

    This blog discussed the Dulles family's role in world missions a year ago, under the caption "John Birch Society Warning to JFK in 1958." It should be recalled that the wife of Wilson's Secretary of State, Mrs. Robert "Eleanor Foster" Lansing, was a sister of Edith Foster Dulles, whose sons John Foster and Allen Dulles were being trained to exert the same missionary zeal in the 1940's and 50's over world affairs and intelligence as these sisters' father, John Watson Foster, had done in the 1870's, 80's and 90's. Protestant fundamentalists were the original settlers of American colonies. Through their control of institutions such as Harvard, Yale and Princeton, they also controlled the purse strings of charitable and missionary efforts abroad. It was simple enough to set up front groups through which to spy on suspected dissidents.

    Josephus Daniels returned to "public service" in 1933 to become President Roosevelt's Ambassador to Mexico, a post he held in Mexico City at the time Leon Trotsky was living in asylum at nearby Coyoacan. Did Daniels have a role in having Trotsky murdered in August 1940 by an "ice-ax-wielding assassin"?

     Had young Pete Bagley ever heard stories told by his uncle about those days in Mexico? Daniels died in 1948. Pete was then 24 years old, but he would have been a teenager in 1940 when he read about Trotsky's death.The convicted assassin Jacques Mornard van den Dresch finished serving his prison sentence in 1960 and went to Cuba with a Czech passport. Mexican officials by then claimed he was a Spaniard, though he had earlier claimed to be Persian-born of Belgian parents. Pete Bagley must have wondered what his uncle had known. But we can no longer ask him. He died in March 2014.

    Talbot Bielefeldt's Own Skeletons  

    By 1963, however, Pete Bagley was not looking back to Trotsky's murder in Mexico in 1940. He had a more current assassination to solve. Having been in charge of Soviet counterintelligence since 1959, it was his office which tasked Lee Wigren to obtain an "analysis of the Soviet press reaction" to the assassination of President Kennedy. Was there a reason Wigren addressed his questions to Talbot Bielefeldt, whose expertise was not Russian, but Japanese?

    J. Bagnall
    Exactly who was Talbot Bielefeldt? We do know from the above memo that he worked in the Foreign Documents Division of the CIA, and therefore his boss would have been John J. Bagnall. who also seems to have something to do with "Project USJPRS".

    In February 1962 E. Howard Hunt, who had been attempting to find work for his wife Dorothy, was advised to check with Bagnall to see if he could find work for her in JUSPB [sic]; the writer must have been referring to, USJPRS, the U.S. Joint Publications Research Service:
    JPRS was established in March 1957 as part of the United States Department of Commerce’s Office of Technical Services, about six months before the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1. Acting as a unit within the Central Intelligence Agency, JPRS staffers prepared translations for the use of U.S. Government officials, various agencies, and the research and industrial communities. During the Cold War, the reports were primarily translations rather than analysis or commentary, with an emphasis on scientific and technical topics. Over time, however, that scope expanded to cover environmental concerns, world health issues, nuclear proliferation, and more.
    Writer, Leo Sarkisian, who worked with Voice of America, was once photographed at a party with the Bielefeldts and other CIA officials who worked with foreign translations.

    Nixons at Fullerton Union
    Talbot's family in 1920 was living in Placentia, California, a Quaker community, the same small town where Richard Nixon’s family lived at that time. Though Talbot was ten years older than Richard, he did have siblings the same age as the Nixon boys. Talbot and his younger siblings attended Fullerton Union High School, where Richard Nixon was a student in 1927-28, though the Nixons had moved to Whittier after 1920. Did they cross paths before Nixon came to prominence during the Red Scare wave?

    Though Talbot’s parents were born in Iowa, both sets of his grandparents immigrated to Iowa from Hanover, Germany. His father and grandfather tried their hands at mining near Silverton, Colorado for a time, but moved to Maryland after a scarlet fever plague killed several family members. Talbot and his two closest siblings were born while the Bielefeldts lived in a large house on the Miles River in the Chesapeake region, and his name likely came from Talbot County, where it was located.

    When Talbot was five years old, his family had moved from the east coast to the west, settling in North Orange County, where three more children were born. Talbot's father turned to farming and by 1930 owned a prosperous citrus ranch in Placentia. It is likely Talbot's exposure to the German language stuck with him. Then, at Stanford in the early 1920's, he gravitated toward internationalism. The summer before his senior year, he spent a month in Japan with a group of young men his age. Although there is no independent evidence of the fact, his wedding announcement in 1936 revealed:
    Mr. Bielefeldt, who is postmaster at Placentia, is a graduate of Stanford University. He was a faculty member of American schools in the Orient, in China and Japan.
    Fernanda Eliscu in Winterset, 1936
    His new wife, Eugenie Pfeil, was the daughter of two stage actors, who used the names Carl Anthony and Fernanda Eliscu (born in Romania). After Carl's death in 1930, Fernanda began making movies, her first being the "photoplay," Winterset, written and produced by Maxwell Anderson in 1936. Talbot took his new wife back home to Placentia, where he had been assigned a commission by the President as Postmaster of his hometown.

    A week before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Talbot enlisted in the Navy and served six years, first being assigned to the Japanese Language School on the campus of University of California at Berkeley. By September 1944 he had risen to the rank of Lieutenant Commander and there are indications he was involved in cryptology. From there it was only natural that he would join the Central Intelligence Agency when it was created in 1947.

    Excerpt from Roger Dignman in Deciphering the Rising Sun: Navy and Marine Corps Codebreakers, Translators and Interpreters in the Pacific War.

    As shown in the excerpt above, W. A. Talbot Bielefeldt was among the first men chosen for the Japanese Language School held in California, along with someone called "Gerald J. Bagnall".  Could  Gerald have been a disguised "John"? This first class preceded the selection of Roger Pineau, who attended the same school after it was moved to Colorado because of internment of Japanese taking place at the original location.

    According to the CIA's website:
    With the creation of the Central Intelligence Group there commenced a process of accretion of functions taken from the wartime agencies and from departments which were anticipating reductions in budget under peacetime conditions. The Strategic Services Unit was transferred from the Department of the Army and became the Office of Special Operations - charged with espionage and counterespionage functions. The Washington Document Center was taken over from the Navy and shortly after that the Army's German Military Documents Center at Fort Holabird joined this unit and together became the Foreign Documents Division. The Foreign Broadcast Information Service, an organization with worldwide bases for monitoring all non-coded radio traffic, which had originally been under the Federal Communications Commission, was transferred from the Army and became the Foreign Broadcast Information Division. During World War II the Army and Navy and OSS and occasionally other agencies had all approached US businesses and institutions in search of foreign intelligence information. An early agreement was reached that this domestic collection should be performed as a service of common concern by Central Intelligence with other agencies participating as they desired, and this became the Contact Division. Another illustration of the type of functions taken on is the division of responsibilities with the Department of State on biographic intelligence. The list would be much too long if we attempted to enumerate all of the functions acquired in this method.
    In December 1953 Talbot was rated at the salary level GS-14 in the C.I.A., and his name appeared on a list of 96 CIA employees cleared for Top Security, who were "certified to meet the standards required" to attend lectures at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. On that list were also the names Thomas W. Braden, C. Tracy Barnes, E. Howard Hunt, and Cord Meyer, Jr., but many more names were redacted, even upon the list's release in 1998.

    Two years after receiving clearance to attend the Industrial College, Talbot wrote the following memorandum to Bruce Solie of the CIA's Security Analysis Group (SAG):
    click to enlarge
    Re: Orr, Paul & Violet
    William A. Hyde was in Washington this last week-end, visiting his daughter and son-in-law, Sylvia and John Hoke, 763 Kennedy, N.E. The latter invited [REDACTED] and me over to meet him on Saturday night, 17 December, since we three were friends at Stanford.

    Why would Solie's security group have been curious about William Hyde and his eldest daughter, Sylvia Hyde Hoke? And who, pray tell, were Paul and Violet Hyde?

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    The first experts on the subject of Ruth Hyde were recognized by respected researcher, the late George Michael Evica in his groundbreaking book published by Trine Day.

    Excerpt from
    by George Michael Evica
    © 2010 Trine Day Publishers
    Portion of Essay Eight, pp. 282-288

    Oswald and the Paines
    A Certain Arrogance

    When Marina and Lee Harvey Oswald settled in Dallas, Michael Paine and his wife Ruth Hyde Paine (“the kindly Quaker woman”) were already residents of the area. No other household in the United States supplied the Dallas Police, FBI, and Warren Commission with more “evidence” of Lee Harvey Oswald’s alleged guilt than the Paines: the Paine garage in Irving, Texas, was an incriminatory storehouse. According to Gaeton Fonzi, a Congressional investigator, “One glaring example of the quality of the [House Select] Committee’s investigation was … Ruth Paine was never called as a witness.”

    Who, then, were Ruth and Michael Paine?1

    Ruth Paine’s father and mother, William Avery Hyde and Carol Hyde, were prominent Unitarians in Ohio.

    [p. 283]

    The Unitarian Service

    The Oil-Intelligence-Unitarian Universe of Lee Harvey Oswald Committee, a significant supporter of Schweitzer College, had collaborated with the OSS in World War II and, later, with the  CIA- penetrated US Agency for International Development (USAID). During World War II, Hyde was an agent of the OSS. Later, he worked for USAID as it cooperated closely with the CIA. In addition, Ruth’s brother-in-law John Hoke worked for the Communications Resource Division of USAID.

    According to John Gilligan, President Jimmy Carter’s USAID director, many offices of the USAID were populated “from top to bottom” by CIA agents or assets. According to Gilligan, “The idea was to plant operatives in every kind of activity we had overseas -- government, volunteer, religious, every kind.” Ruth Hyde Paine’s familial Intelligence connections were close. Ruth’s sister, Sylvia Hyde Hoke, worked either for the Air Force, the CIA, or both. In 1957, William Avery Hyde (Ruth’s father) was evaluated for a CIA assignment in Vietnam but (at least officially) was not used by the Agency.

    Hyde toured Latin America from October 1964 to August 1967, covering Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Panama, afterward composing a report sent to both the State Department and the CIA. William Avery Hyde and George De Mohrenschildt had both worked for the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA).

    A post-assassination intelligence report on Ruth Paine and her father recorded that William Avery Hyde and his wife Carol had closely associated with known CIA operatives, but the report contained an additional and important notation: “Sam Papich” had been given the information. Papich was the partner of William Sullivan in the FBI’s counter-intelligence operations, cooperating with James Jesus Angleton of the CIA’s corresponding unit; Papich was the Bureau’s CIA counter-intelligence contact reporting directly to Angleton; and both he and Sullivan were longtime Bureau investigators
    of False Identity and Illegals espionage cases. One such case concerned Lee Harvey Oswald.

    William Avery Hyde 

    Baron George De Mohrenschildt, Oswald’s closest friend in the Russian community of Dallas/Fort Worth and a world traveler with close links to at least four spy agencies, had a working relationship with J. Walton Moore, the chief of the CIA’s Domestic Contacts Division in Dallas. Joseph Dryer, an asset of the CIA, friend of

    284 - A Certain Arrogance

    De Mohrenschildt and witness for the House Select Committee on Assassinations was supplied with a list for possible identification “of names of a number of people who may have had some connection
    or association with George De Mohrenschildt.” Dryer recognized two names: one was “Dorothe Matlack.” Ms. Matlack was the US Army’s Assistant Director of the Office of Intelligence and the
    Office’s contact with the CIA. In effect, Dorothe Matlack was the Pentagon’s liaison to the Agency. In turn, Director Matlack and DeMohrenschildt met on May 7, 1963, just prior to the Baron and his wife leaving for Haiti on an intelligence-related mission.

    The meeting between Army intelligence and Oswald’s reputed “sitter” was, in fact, a densely populated thicket. Present were: Clemard Charles, a Haitian banker who dealt in arms sales, acted
    as a CIA funding conduit, and functioned as a top advisor to the president of Haiti; Army intelligence officer Sam Kail, close associate of anti-Castro Cubans at the Miami JM/WAVE station and  responsible for key elements of the Army/Agency plots against Fidel; CIA officer Tony Czaikowski, an Agency staff officer representing the CIA’s interest in Haiti as a launching platform for another invasion of Cuba.

    Clemard Charles pleaded for the overthrow of President Duvalier (at least one plot reportedly including De Mohrenschildt) as the Haitian banker who apparently toted large sums of money around Washington for investment and gifts to D.C. politicos just short of bribery. There were at least two cover stories for the Baron: a Haitian-approved “geological survey” and a contemplated exploration of sisal and hemp plantation purchases or leases.

    The second name Joseph Dryer recognized was “William Avery Hyde.” Everything about Hyde and De Mohrenschildt suggests their foreign travels would have been valuable to the CIA’S Domestic
    Contacts Division both in Washington and in Dallas. Certainly William Avery Hyde’s OSS/CIA links, given Hyde’s closeness to his daughter Ruth Paine, ought to have troubled any government investigator of the JFK assassination.

    Ruth Hyde Paine’s family was apparently dysfunctional. William Avery Hyde consigned his wife of over thirty years to an Ohio mental institution before divorcing in her in 1961. Carol Hyde was “treated for paranoia and delusions,” but her daughter Ruth was apparently doubtful about the grounds for her mother’s commitment.


    The Oil-Intelligence-Unitarian Universe of Lee Harvey Oswald She herself felt partly responsible for her mother’s behavior. After the divorce, Carol Hyde was released from the Ohio sanitarium, entered Oberlin College and pursued ministerial studies to become a hospital chaplain. She was ordained a Unitarian minister.

    Michael & George Lyman Paine 

    Michael Paine’s father was George Lyman Paine, called Lyman Paine by his son and those who knew him well. Lyman Paine was a Harvard graduate, a New York architect, and, after the Great Depression, a serious explorer of Marxist alternatives. Moving to Los Angeles, Lyman Paine married Freddie Drake and joined a “socialist splinter group,” becoming a key figure in the anti-Stalinist Trotskyite movement in the United States. The Socialist Workers Party, chief organ of the Trotskyites in the United States, was closely monitored and even infiltrated by US Intelligence, becoming a path for American counter-intelligence to run operations against the Communist Party and keep a close watch on the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, heavily supported by Trotskyites.

    Lyman Paine was suspected (by some) of being a double agent tasked to penetrate and permanently cripple Trotskyism as an independent Socialist entity. Oddly enough, Michael Paine, apparently knowledgeable about nuances of Marxist/Leninist anti-Stalinism, once characterized his friend Lee Harvey Oswald as a Trotskyite, and FBI Agent Hosty testified to the Warren Commission that on November 5, less than two weeks before the murder in Dealey Plaza, Ruth Paine told Hosty that Oswald “admitted to her being a Trotskyite Communist.”

    According to a Dallas FBI agent, “George Lyman Paine, Jr., had telephoned [his son Michael] … the night of the assassination. A long-distance operator … illegally listened in on the conversation [why?] and later reported what she had heard to the FBI.” The Paines’ telephone lines were obviously being monitored by US Intelligence. According to that same Bureau agent, “George Paine was a well-known Trotskyite, and during his telephone call to his son … said, ‘We all know who did this.…” The FBI had, in fact, been monitoring George Lyman Paine for some time as a Bureau “security-index subject.” From no later than 1953 through as late as October 2, 1963, the FBI submitted regular reports on Lyman Paine: one in 1953, another in 1955, three in 1956, two in 1957, one in 1958, three in 1959, three in 1960, and the last in 1963,

    286 - A Certain Arrogance

    just before the assassination. All the Bureau’s reports are preserved in the Warren Commission’s documents (CD 600-615).

    Apparently the FBI found the coincidence not at all remarkable: that the Paines, with their liberal/ anti-Communist orientation and with a major anti-Communist/Trotskyite link in their family, should befriend the family of an admitted Trotskyite (who had redefected from the Soviet Union), at least according to Michael and Ruth Paine. Despite the clear contradictions in Oswald’s left-wing
    resume´, including his closeness to the son of a major anti-Stalinist socialist being tracked by the FBI, the Bureau apparently took no further notice after November 22, 1963.

    The Warren Commission did pay some attention to the odd confluence, closely questioning Michael Paine about his father, about Lyman Paine’s political interests, and whether Michael was aware that his father had used at least two pseudonyms: “Thomas L. Brown” and “Lyman Pierce,” the latter probably a pun on that which caused pain, a pierce; or the surname of Charles Pierce, a philosopher Lyman Paine admired; or both.

    Ruth Forbes Paine Young 

    Michael Paine’s mother was Ruth Forbes, who had an important intelligence connection: she and Mary Bancroft, Allen Dulles’ OSS lover and fellow agent, were lifelong friends. In Mary Bancroft’s careful rendition of her life as an OSS agent, she identified George Lyman Paine and Ruth Forbes Paine as her close friends both in Boston and New York; but they disappeared from Bancroft’s narrative after 1933, though Ruth Forbes Paine remained a part of
    Bancroft’s life. After her divorce Ruth and her second husband, Arthur Young, were intimates of Mary Bancroft for years.

    Ruth Young, or Ruth Forbes Young, or Ruth Forbes Paine Young became a World Federalist, founded the International Peace Academy, and, together with her husband Arthur, created the Institute for the Study of Consciousness, Berkeley, California.

    Arthur Young, Michael Paine’s stepfather, was an inventor, and deeply interested in what would later be called general systems theory, including its para-psychological and spiritual dimensions. He “had a serious interest in both extrasensory perception and astrology,” an oversimplified tag for Young’s belief in a pervading cosmic synergy. Young was one of the creators of the Bell Helicopter and was responsible for obtaining


    The Oil-Intelligence-Unitarian Universe of Lee Harvey Oswald a high-tech/high security clearance job for his stepson Michael Paine at Bell’s operation near Dallas. Michael had earlier worked for the Franklin Institute, a CIA “conduit.”

    Michael’s wife Ruth apparently considered Arthur and Ruth Young important elder mentors. She periodically consulted the Philadelphia-area Youngs about undisclosed topics, especially in the summer of 1963. Michael and Ruth were originally from the Philadelphia area, where they were reportedly active Quakers. How had it all begun?

    Ruth Avery Hyde 

    Ruth Avery Hyde established her earliest liberal, philosophical and political credentials at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio. By 1951, she had become a member of the Quakers, the Society of Friends. Ruth instructed senior Russian Jews at the YMCA in Philadelphia and taught physical education to schoolchildren in a Friends program; her post-graduation years were lived in “Quakerism’s great American stronghold, southeastern Pennsylvania.…” Ruth met Michael Paine in 1955 at a Quaker service, and they sang together in the madrigal group. They were married in December, 1957.

    For a short time Ruth and Michael lived in a barn on the estate of Arthur Young, Michael’s stepfather. It was here, reportedly working with Arthur Young on “aeronautical designs,” that Michael picked up sufficient expertise to land an engineering job at Bell Helicopter in Fort Worth. It may have helped that Arthur’s patent, sold to Larry Bell in 1941, made the Bell Helicopter possible.

    The Paines moved to Irving, Texas, and by 1958, sparked by Ruth’s Russophilia, became active in the Dallas/Fort Worth area’s expatriate Russian community. This was a highly conservative, anti-Soviet and Orthodox Christian community whose hierarchy was compromised by both the CIA and the KGB. Prominent among the White Russians was Paul M. Raigorodsky, at one time employed by the
    NATO Special Representative to Europe, probably an intelligence related office. In 1963, Raigorodsky was a member of the Board of Directors of the CIA-funded Tolstoy Foundation. The relationship between the ostensibly liberal Philadelphia Quaker couple and the reactionary Russian expatriates was a curious fit.

    288 - A Certain Arrogance

    The Oswalds Meet Ruth Paine 

    In February 1963 Lee and Marina Oswald were brought by George
    De Mohrenschildt and his wife to a social gathering in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. There the Oswalds met Ruth Paine, and an intimate relationship between Ruth and Marina began. Though the Paines had recently separated, the couple remained close. Marina and her first child lived with Ruth while Michael and Lee visited periodically.

    The circumstances surrounding the initial meeting of Ruth Paine and Oswald resonate with special intelligence dimensions, suggesting he was already being evaluated (or even prepared) as a possible patsy.2


    Essay Eight Notes:

    [1] p. 282 What has been called the “Paine Project,” led by researchers and writers Carol Hewett, Steven Jones, Barbara LaMonica, and William Kelly has meticulously documented the extraordinary participation of Ruth and Michael Paine in the lives of Lee and Marina Oswald.

    The Paine/Hyde/Hoke familial network to which Michael and Ruth Paine belonged exhibited a complexity of U.S. intelligence connections either withheld from or ignored by the Warren Commission.

    336 - A Certain Arrogance

    William Avery Hyde, Ruth Paine’s father, was the subject of several CIA file documents that referred to his family’s support of Norman Thomas’ anti-communist Socialist Party, which was being funded by the Agency. Hyde and his wife Carol were associated with Talbot Bielfeldt, an agent of the Foreign Documents Division of the CIA; yet Carol Hyde (Ruth Paine’s mother) was characterized as a “radical” by U.S. double-agent Herbert Philbrick, who cited her activity in the Woman’s International League for Peace and Justice: according to Philbrick, a communist “front.”

    Sylvia Ludlow Hyde, Ruth (Hyde) Paine’s sister, also called both Sylvia Hyde Hoke and Sylvia Hoke (after marrying John Hoke), was employed by the U.S. Labor Department from 1949 through 1953. During World War II and the Cold War, the OSS and the CIA recruited anti-Nazi and then anti-Communist labor activists and union leaders. The U.S. Labor Department was, therefore, a long-time center of U.S. intelligence/anti-Communist activity and the site of U.S. covert penetration of both the domestic and foreign labor movements.

    Sylvia Hyde was employed by the CIA as early as 1954; her “cover” was as a Personnel Research Technician, Placement and Employee Relations Division, Director of Civilian Personnel, HQ, Department of the Air Force, Washington, D.C. The Air Force had, in fact, provided sanctuary for both intelligence “black” budget items and covert intelligence personnel in the 1950s and ‘60s.

    Sylvia Hoke’s Security File 348 201 was inside the CIA’s Office of Security, Security Analysis Group. Sylvia’s contacts included her mother-in-law, Mrs. Helen Hoke, who had a close relationship with Dorothy Wilson, allegedly a member of the North Beach, California branch of the Communist Party, in the early 1940s. Sylvia Hoke also worked at Time magazine when she gave Gerritt E. Fielstra as a reference, reputedly a communist sympathizer and labor organizer. But Fielstra may have himself been a U.S. double agent. On April 17, 1956, Sylvia Hoke was granted a Top Secret security clearance by the Agency for International Development (USAID), a long-time collaborator with the CIA. Because of her labor and left-wing associations (and those of her mother-in-law), Sylvia Hoke’s
    clearance was questioned by the FBI. Yet her clearance with USAID was revalidated on January 17, 1962.

    As late as November 11, 1963, the CIA’s Office of Security was queried internally about Sylvia Hoke. The 1961 Falls Church, Virginia Directory listed Sylvia Hoke as an “emp CIA”: that is, employed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Evidence also indicated that Sylvia Hoke either worked for Naval intelligence at the same time or had an active file there because of her husband’s intelligence-related activity.

    Sylvia Hoke’s husband was John Lindsey Hoke (Ruth Paine’s brother-in-law). On February 4, 1956, John Hoke was appointed an audio-visual consultant with the International Cooperation Administration (predecessor of USAID, U.S. Operations Mission in Panama City. John Hoke admitted to the Deputy Director of Communications, ICA, that he did “intelligence type work for the American Embassy.” In Surinam and later in Washington, D.C., John Hoke worked for ICA and then USAID, but ran into trouble with the House Subcommittee on Government Operations when it was
    discovered his solar-powered boat project in Surinam was also intended to generate “personal profit.” On June 30, 1963, John Hoke left USAID, yet on August 22, 1963, the CIA granted a second and indefinite “Approval for Liaison” with John Hoke. Hoke remained in the good graces of both the U.S. Military and U.S. Intelligence through at least 1965, employed by the military-industrial partner Atlantic Research where he was the subject of a positive U.S. Naval intelligence check. The Hyde/Paine/Hoke network of intelligence and intelligence-related activities strongly suggests a liberal familial complex whose members were willing double-agents in support of anti-Communist
    goals. Ruth Hyde Paine was at the center of that Hyde/Paine/ Hoke counterintelligence complexity.

    337 - End Notes

    [2] p. 288 Edward Epstein, the confidante of both the CIA’s James Jesus Angleton and FBI’s William Sullivan and their counterintelligence associates interviewed six (or more) people present at the Oswald/Ruth Paine party meeting (see Epstein 317, end note for Chapter XII: the party is covered on 203-206). Epstein apparently considered the party’s ambiance a necessary factor in Oswald’s motives for allegedly shooting at General Edwin Walker and, subsequently, John F. Kennedy. The reader must therefore keep Epstein’s major anti-Oswald intelligence connections in mind when evaluating statements ostensibly made by the party’s participants and subsequently ‘reported’ by Epstein.

    Also see:

    1.  By Bill Simpich: THE JFK CASE: THE TWELVE WHO BUILT THE OSWALD LEGEND (Part 7: The hand-off from De Mohrenschildt to the Paines)

    2. The Paines by LaMonica, Hewett and Jones

    3. Security File on Sylvia Hyde Hoke

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    In our last post, we moved from Palo Alto, California, where Ruth Hyde Paine's father grew up, and where her mother's family settled shortly before the two young people met and received baccalaureate degrees from Stanford in the mid-1920s. The reason for the abrupt departure of chronology was the need to discuss a memorandum dated 21 Dec.1955 that referred to acquaintances of  Ruth's father, William A. Hyde during the days he had been at Stanford:

    Re: Orr, Paul & Violet
    William A. Hyde was in Washington this last week-end, visiting his daughter and son-in-law, Sylvia and John Hoke, 763 Kennedy, N.E. The latter invited [REDACTED] and me over to meet him on Saturday night, 17 December, since we three were friends at Stanford. 
    This 1955 memorandum from Stanford graduate and CIA Foreign Document specialist Talbot Bielefeldt to the the man in charge of researching the background of CIA employees and their contacts remained classified until, "sanitized" in 1998, it was deemed safe for public consumption. We wanted to explore the various divisions within the CIA and the background of the personnel before revealing what our own research shows about the persons being discussed.

    (Read Part I, Part II, PART III, Part IV, Part V)

    Part VI
    The Big Picture
    By Linda Minor

    Preparing to Enter "the Real World"

    Stanford as it was in 1923
    The Stanford campus had been new and polished in 1923-26, when these young students graduated and set out to change the world. By 1955, while Senator Joseph McCarthy was cranking up his Red Scare tactics, Talbot was reporting to Bruce Solie, of the CIA's Security staff, about a recent meeting involving some of his closest friends from those college days.

    As a major in political science, Talbot joined Alpha Pi Zeta, a fraternity for history, economics, and political science majors, and he was involved in a debating society, one of whose sponsors was Dr. Yamato Ichihashi, a Japanese-American professor who, though he lived almost all his life in the United States, would be interned for three years in "relocation centers" during WWII. The Japanese camps were set up at about the same time Talbot was a student at the Japanese Language School at Berkeley, before it was moved to Boulder. It was Dr. Ichihashi who had sponsored Talbot's summer in Japan in 1924; the tour was made available every year for Dr. Ichihashi's students. Buddy Tseuneo Iwata, for example, made the tour in 1938. He would be released from internment in 1942 in order to teach Japanese at the Japanese Language School in Boulder taught by Florence Walne until her untimely death in 1946.

    Talbot's return from Yokoham in 1924 (click to enlarge).

    Little did Talbot know when he graduated in 1925 that Stanford's most illustrious alumnus would be elected U.S. President three years later, though he must have known that Hoover, whose family owned a home just south of the campus, that he had been serving as Secretary of Commerce since 1921. In fact, Talbot graduated from Stanford the same year as Hoover's eldest son. In their sophomore year, both had been nominated to serve on behalf of their class for different offices.

    The Cosmopolitan Club, which brought in noted speakers with an international point of view, had been created by Stanford's first president, David Starr Jordan, with the help of Dr. Ichihashi. The club was also sponsored and promoted on campus by Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, who was the university's president during the years Talbot and his friends were students. Wilbur had taken a leave of absence in 1917 to serve as Herbert Hoover’s second in command in the Wartime Food Administration, and would also depart for Washington in 1929 to serve as the newly elected President Hoover’s Secretary of the Interior. These connections undoubtedly led to the promise of important, if perhaps secret, government work for Talbot Bielefeldt and his colleagues.

    Ruth's mom, 1924
    Talbot may not have known W.A. Hyde, who was two years ahead of him in Stanford's chemistry department, but he knew Carol Hyde (class of 1924) from the Cosmopolitan Club. Carol, like her husband, was Phi Beta Kappa, the national honorary scholarship fraternity, but her primary interests were music-related. She joined the Schubert Club and the Music Club. Thus, it would have been Carol's motivating influence on daughter Ruth which involved her in folk singing and dancing, an activity in which she was engaged when she met Michael Paine in 1957.

    The other two students mentioned in the subject line of Bielefeldt's 1955 memo may indicate whom Talbot  meant by "we three were at Stanford together," although, if that is the case, it is unclear why a name was redacted from the body of the memo (at top of this post). The redacted name of the person invited by John Hoke to his home could not have been either Paul Wright Orr or his wife, Violet May Balcomb Orr, who lived in California. To whom was he referring, and why was the subject of the memo seemingly so unrelated?

    Paul Orr, as we observe from the bio clipped from the Stanford yearbook, served in the Cosmopolitan Club's cabinet with Talbot during their sophomore and junior years. Violet was treasurer of the club during their senior year when Talbot was also a cabinet member. Therefore, these three students were likely somewhat close throughout their last three years at the university. In addition, both Paul and Talbot were in the Sequoia Club together, the Sequoia being Stanford's quarterly literary magazine. The Orrs, like the Hydes, married in 1926, though Talbot remained single for ten years, later marrying a woman he met in New York.

    The year was 1926 when all five students departed California. It was the jazz age, and all America was tuned into radio and Victrola recordings of Bye Bye Blackbird, a fitting melody for young men and women poised to enter the "real world."

    William A. and Carol Hyde in New York

    William Avery Hyde (W.A.), the oldest of the five, had not been a member of any clubs. In fact, W.A.'s  photo did not appear in the Quad yearbook at any time while he was a student, although his name was shown in the 1923 and 1924 yearbooks as a member of Phi Lambda Upsilon, the honorary chemistry fraternity, and also in 1924 as a Phi Beta Kappa honoree. I have not been able to find any photograph of either him or his father, who was a municipal leader in Palo Alto for many years, an admirer of the Progressive movement of Republican President Theodore Roosevelt.

    It is likely through W.A.'s excellence in chemistry that he secured employment in New York City at the AT&T's Bell Laboratories shortly after his 1923 graduation, coupled with influence possibly from his well-known father or uncle, James McDonald Hyde, who had known Herbert Hoover's brother Tad Hoover for many years. W.A. and Carol Hyde set up housekeeping together in 1926 in New York as W.A. used his chemistry degree to get a job in the telephone industry in which A.T. & T. had a legal monopoly.

    First public demonstration of "television" at Bell Labs
    We can only wonder whether W.A. was present on-site when then Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover's live image was broadcast to Bell Labs in New York from Washington, D.C., the first public demonstration of how television would work. It was one of many promises of what the future of technology held in store for the world.

    Hoover held the Commerce position in the Cabinets of both Republican Presidents Harding and Coolidge throughout the 1920's until his own election to the Presidency in 1928. From Hoover's Quaker upbringing, his education at Stanford and his mining career, he had acquired world view which today seems alien from our knowledge of what Republicans have become over the last 80 years or so. His philosophy was one of optimism and cooperation, believing:
    ...that the American economy would be healthier if business leaders worked together, and with government officials and experts from the social sciences, in a form of private-sector economic planning. This stance led him to support trade associations—industry-wide cooperative groups wherein information on prices, markets, and products could be exchanged among competitors—which Hoover saw as a middle way between competition and monopoly. He insisted, though, that participation in these associations remain voluntary and that the government merely promote and encourage, rather than require, their establishment.
    40 Morningside at 118th, NY
    The Hydes remained in New York through at least the birth of their youngest child, a second girl, whom they name Ruth Avery Hyde, who entered the world in 1932. Their home at that time was an apartment at 40 Morningside Avenue, adjacent to the Church of Notre Dame near the campus of Columbia Teachers College. The building faced out on a beautiful park, perfect for Carol to take the children for a stroll while William made a short commute to Bell Labs in downtown, but still on the West Side.

    The 1930 census record, which shows their address, also indicates that the Hydes had a boarder living with them that year--none other than future CIA foreign document expert Talbot Bielefeldt, whom we met earlier!

    Talbot Bielefeldt lived with William A. and Carol Hyde in New York, 1930 (click to enlarge).
    How did they meet ... and where?
    Talbot, who by then had a degree in political science and possibly a master's degree from Columbia, listed his occupation in 1930 as a bill clerk at a collection agency. He was also enumerated that year at his parents' home in Placentia, California, where they, too, listed him as a "collector at a collection agency (code 6792)". He continued to have a separate listing at his parents' citrus ranch address in the Placentia directory, though no occupation was shown until he was appointed the town's Postmaster by President Roosevelt in 1936. Where was Talbot during these years from 1930 to 1936 which led up to his appointment?

    See Mike Wallace's 1957 interview of Browder.
    Could he have been working under cover even then for counter intelligence, possibly in the guise of a clerk at the Retail Credit agency which reported back to FBI, as we shall later observe. Equally intriguing is the fact that he met his wife, Eugenie Pfeil, news editor for the weekly Bronxville Review, during the time that Earl W. Browder, general secretary of the Community Party USA, lived in Yonkers with his Russian-born wife, Raissa, about five miles from the Pfeils' home. Was Talbot part of a secret agency within the Hoover administration, years even before the Office of Strategic Services was created? Could he have had Communists like Browder under surveillance in Yonkers, and in the process met his future wife?

    Paul W. Orr and Violet Balcomb Orr

    Formerly classified files not released until the 1980's inform us that, as early as 1935 the FBI was aware that Violet Orr was working at San Francisco's 1026 Market Street office of he American League Against War and Fascism, a Communist group in which Elizabeth Turrill Bentley, "the Red Spy Queen," was a member as early as 1932. She was studied by Mary Ferrell, who added her to her timeline of Communist activities leading up to the assassination in 1963. Ferrell compared Bentley to Hede Massing, formerly the wife of Gerhart Eisler and the controller of Russian underground in Washington, D.C., which included Alger Hiss. Ferrell also added to her timeline a contact in San Francisco called Volkov, who may well have been the first husband of Elena Volkov aka Helen Silvermaster. We mention the fact that Elizabeth Bentley, in fact, died of a fast-growing cancer just ten days after President Kennedy was shot.

    Ferrell also recounted in her chronology the fact that Alger Hiss, who had been Hede Massing in 1935, was married in 1929 to a woman named Priscilla Fansler, born in Evanston, Illinois in 1903. In 1930 this young couple was living and working in Washington, D.C. where he was licensed to practice law, and she obtained a job as a researcher for the government; they lived at 1251 30th Street, N.W., an upscale Georgetown address. A decade later they were in the same neighborhood at 3415 Volta Place. Ferrell's comments relative to Ruth Paine after Fansler's name are unclear.

    The next mention of Bentley in Ferrell's timeline is in 1938, when she joined the Jacob Golos network he controlled under his corporation called World Tourists, Inc. in New York City. Not until 1941 did Bentley identify Irving Kaplan, by then working in Washington, D.C. for the War Production Board, as a member of her Communist cell within the Silvermaster group. Shortly after that label was placed on him, the FBI was conducting both "technical" and physical surveillance of Irving Kaplan and his wife, Dorothy Friedland Kapan, and, as a result, the FBI report mentioned the Kaplans' connection to Violet Orr, whom the FBI counter-intelligence branch considered "a prominent Communist." This information was part of the FBI's BUFILE 65-56402, tucked away in a report prepared by J. Edgar Hoover's assistant D. Milton "Mickie" Ladd, the son of deceased Senator Edwin Ladd of North Dakota. But the report was not compiled until 1946, when it was sent to officials in Truman's administration.

    We can only speculate about who it was who opened an investigation of the office where Violet Orr worked ...in 1935, when she opened the letter addressed to Dorothy Friedland Kaplan. This branch of the League was also connected to Russian-born Helen (Vera Witte) Silvermaster, daughter of Sergei Yulyevitch Witte. Helen came to America in 1923 by way of China with her first husband. She lived in San Francisco and gave birth to a son, Anatole Boris Volkov, shortly before she began living with the notorious Soviet spy, Nathan Gregory Silvermaster.

    The FBI investigation of Chambers' allegations may have been requested by FDR's Assistant Secretary of State Adolph Berle after he was introduced to Whittaker Chambers by Isaac Don Levine in September 1939, but that was four years after Violet was in San Francisco. According to the testimony Levine gave to the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1948, Chambers had left the Communist Party in 1937 and lived in hiding within the United States until the news of the Hitler-Stalin Pact in 1939 scared him to the point of taking action. Only then did he seek out Levine, a journalist, to whom he told his confidential story in the hope he could reveal what he knew to President Roosevelt about the infiltration of Communists within the U.S. Government. A few months later, Levine took him to the home of Assistant Secretary of State Adolph Berle at a home he rented from Secretary of War Henry Stimson, but after listening for several hours to Whittaker Chambers, Berle never contacted either of the two men again. Levine assumed the matter had died.

    However, in Adolph Berle's testimony before HUAC, he related what he had done in response to the information he had been furnished by Chambers. He "caused the Department [of State] to establish very close relations with the Federal Bureau of Investigation," and he apparently instigation the organization of a division called the "Foreign Activities Correlation Division," which following the National Security Act of 1947 merged into another division within the State Department. He also helped to enact the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Berle left the State Department after a "showdown" with Dean Acheson in 1944.

    Acheson, however, had resigned from FDR's Treasury department in protest when the administration remained the gold backing on the dollar. However, in 1940 Acheson was brought back into the administration within the State Department. It was in that role that haggling took place between him and Berle, who until that point was in charge of intelligence matters within the State Department. Berle claimed to have been ousted from his role in the State Department after telling FDR what he had been told by Whittaker Chambers, and said that the substitution by Acheson  "worried" him, telling HUAC he was also quite concerned about leaks of secret information from the State Department that he had noticed appearing in news columns, especially with regard to the Yalta Conference.

    Admiral William D. Leahy with Joint Chiefs from military
    The FBI Report was transmitted to Admiral William D. Leahy and Secretary of State James Byrnes, and Attorney General Tom Clark in 1946. That was, coincidentally, the same year Richard Nixon was elected to Congress ... in the same district where Talbot Bielefeldt had been Postmaster during the late 1930's. It may be recalled that Admiral Leahy (equivalent to what is now chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) was related to Tennent H. "Pete" Bagley on his mother's side, that Pete's father, in addition to being brother-in-law to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, rose to the rank of vice admiral before his retirement in 1947.

    Violet at American League Against War and Fascism, 1935
    Based on what Berle called the "very close relationship" he had promoted with the FBI after meeting Chambers in 1939, Special Agent R.C. Taylor in the San Francisco FBI office had Dorothy Friedland Kaplan (inset to the right), under surveillance when he made a report on June 29, 1941. However, I have been unable to discover why the Bureau would have opened the captioned case file, "Paul Wright Orr, with aliases, et al., Internal Security - C."

    Taylor's report, no copy of which has surfaced, ostensibly contained documentation for the stated conclusions that:
    • Violet Balcomb Orr was an associate of Dorothy Friedland in March 1935 (both referred to as "professional grafters"); 
    • that Violet succeeded Dorothy as secretary of the American League Against War and Fascism (1026 Market Street in San Francisco) in April; and
    • in that capacity, Violet was in receipt of a letter sent by the head of the CPUSA Earl Browder from New York to Friedland at that San Francisco address. 
    What is not clear from the report is who requested such surveillance in 1935. Could surveillance have been opened much earlier by someone on the staff of President Herbert Hoover, whose Labor Secretary William Doak had charged that protests against the President's policies were not only politically motivated but inspired by Communists, specifically by an organization called "Friends of the Soviet Union"? Hoover's Secretary of Labor Doak attempted to connect John J. Ballam, the organizer of that group to Earl Browder, chairman of the CPUSA as early as December 1931 (see news clipping at left). If so, it appears that J. Edgar Hoover continued to have his agents following up on these cases, even after FDR took office in 1933.

    Background on the Orrs

    Violet's father, Jean Bart Balcomb, according to the 1920 census, was a civil engineer and designer of a hydroelectric and irrigation project in Oregon before moving to Palo Alto, where he died in 1927. According to Violet's Oral History (digitized on 24 separate MP3 recordings), conducted under a 1976 oral history project by California Historical Society documenting lives of female labor activist/  radicals in California, Violet and Paul Orr moved to New York City in 1926 to work on their master's degrees at Columbia Teachers College, where Violet taught during 1927-28 term in the department of education-psychology.

    At the conclusion of the spring of 1928 term, she mentions on the oral history tape discussions they had with some Columbia professors who had recently returned from the Soviet Union, who  encouraged the Orrs to go there. Violet discusses the time spent in Leningrad and Moscow, but unfortunately, there is no transcript.

    Public Immigration records reveal that, upon their return from the Soviet Union via Naples, in 1930, they gave their destination address in the U.S. as 40 Morningside Avenue in New York City--the address of the same apartment building in which W.A. and Carol Hyde shared a unit with Talbot Bielefeldt during that same year (see census record above). It was at approximately the same time that Elizabeth Bentley returned from her first trip to Italy, boarding a ship in Southampton.

    Could Bentley Have Connected with Our Stanford Grads?

    The next year Bentley returned from Naples, and in 1934 from Trieste--on the last occasion giving her U.S. address in care of  "Dr. Turrill" in Kent, Connecticut. In 1946 she flew by Colonial Airlines from Montreal, giving her address as the Hotel St. George in Brooklyn. In 1947, Bentley made numerous trips to the Caribbean, returning from Puerto Rico in March, and again in August and November 1947 from Bermuda--all three times flying Pan Am into LaGuardia and giving the same hotel as her address.

    It was during these years also that Sir William Stephenson, head of the British Security Coordinator (BSC) office was helping FDR's intelligence man, William J. Donovan, appointed Coordinator of Information in the summer of 1941, to construct America's first intelligence agency, the Office of Strategic Services. Could Bentley have, in fact, been working undercover for the government? Camp X was located near Montreal, and Stephenson also had his hideouts in Jamaica and Bermuda, as we have previously researched at this blog (search 'Stephenson' in search block at right, orange frame).

    When we look at Miss Bentley's Vassar yearbooks, her name appeared in the class of 1930 with that of Jane Acheson, daughter of Secretary of State Dean Acheson. We can only wonder at this point whether the two young women were well acquainted, if at all.

    Although several documents have leaked out, someone in the government is still hiding information about the following persons:
    1. William and Carol Hyde--parents of Ruth Avery Hyde Paine;
    2. Talbot Bielefeldt--a known foreign documents expert trained in 1941 by a Naval Reserve Intelligence unit absorbed into the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947;
    3. Paul and Violet Orr--their mutual friends who were considered to be prominent members of the Communist Party.
    You may recall that Talbot's 1936 wedding announcement stated he, too, had taught in American schools in "the Orient, in China and Japan." We know about his short visit to Japan in 1924 before graduation. Yet we have found nothing to confirm independently any travel in China. Talbot Bielefeldt would have met his wife, Eugenie Pfeil while the former Stanford students were all in New York City. She was at Barnard, located next to Columbia (in the Morningside Heights neighborhood) at the same time the Californians were all there. Is it possible those missing years in the early 1930's he too was abroad? Had he possibly met Elizabeth Bentley while she was a graduate student at Columbia, living also in Morningside Heights?

    The archives of the California Historical Society relates:
    As a Communist Party activist, Violet Orr filled many positions in Northern and Southern California: as an organizational secretary in Oakland in the early 1930s; a candidate for the California State Assembly from Richmond (1934); a laundry worker and labor organizer in San Francisco (1935-1937); and an advertising and circulation manager of the People's World in San Francisco and Los Angeles (1937-1946). Throughout this period, she played an energetic role in California's radical print culture, not only as a manager of the People's World, but also as a founder of the San Francisco laundry workers' newspaper, the Shake Out; a contributor to the Western Worker; and a leafleteer among Richmond refinery workers. During the 1934 General Strike, the Orrs' Point Richmond home was ransacked by vigilantes. After World War II, Violet and Paul Orr worked as school teachers in Oregon, returning to California in 1951 after losing several jobs in the early years of the post-war Red Scare. They continued to feel the strain of rising anti-communist anxiety in Pasadena, where Paul was fired from his job at the California Institute of Technology for refusing to disavow his Communist Party membership. In Pasadena, Violet was active in the Methodist Church and in various peace movements. She and Paul co-authored a utopian novel, 1993, the World of Tomorrow, which was published by Pacific Progress Publishers in 1968.
    At the time the People's World was launched, Time Magazine reported (1/17/1938, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p34):
    Last week Harrison George, who spent 1918-23 in Leavenworth Prison for too violent pacifism, launched the San Francisco daily People's World on $33.000 raised by California Communists. After Chicago's Midwest Daily Record gets under way February 12, People's World will be the western link in a cross-country chain of Communist papers anchored to New York's Daily Worker. Almost bare of advertising, the first week's issues of People's World gave 20,000 readers a generous three cents' worth of bellicose headlines about "SHIPOWNERS PLOT LOCKOUT" and "Portrait of a Fink." Two of its six pages were crammed with fighting Left editorials. Said one: "If you want a reason for a new daily newspaper, all you have to do is to look at the ones you have. . . . The economic royalists have your daily information sewed up."

    The following excerpt appeared science fiction writers' catalog after publication of the Orrs' 
    1968 book.
    The Orrs wrote and self-published this book, whose complete title was 1993: the world of tomorrow; timely look into the future. Printed in Altadena, Ca. in 1968--thirteen years after Paul Orr was called before the House Un-American Activities Committee and refused to answer any questions, it reflects how the Orrs saw what America would be like in thirty years.

    Paul Orr takes the Fifth.
    After refusing to testify in HUAC hearings in 1955, Paul Orr was fired from the job he held as supervisor in charge of the biology department stock room at Cal Tech. Violet was also  fired from her teaching job in McMinnville, Ore., in the early 1950s. Directories show that Paul and Violet continued to live in the Pasadena area, where he worked as a salesman for J.R. Watkins natural household products. Quite a step down, or up, depending on one's angle of perspective.

    Why did he refuse to talk? Was he trying to protect the Hydes and Bielefeldt? Or, had the Orrs been working undercover for the Herbert Hoover administration against the Communist Party during and after their two-year sojourn to Soviet Russia in the late 1920's? Did they take oaths of secrecy that forbade them from talking about what they did? Were they still in touch with the Hydes and with Talbot and his wife up to and including the year 1955?

    Research by A.J. Weberman 

    Other researchers have written about the Hyde family connections to intelligence, but none of them have yet discovered the full story. For example, A.J. Weberman wrote:
    The father of Ruth Paine, William Hyde, had contact with the CIA and the CIA's Office of Security had traces on him: "Files of the Office of Security reflect that Ruth Paine is the daughter of William Avery Hyde, OS C-157,435, (deleted)." William Avery Hyde [CIA SSD-157,435] was an anti-Communist who supported Socialist Party candidate Norman Thomas. Norman Thomas received millions of dollars in CIA subsidies because of his anti-Communist views.

    William Avery Hyde related:
    "Our introduction [to the Communists] came at the 1929 annual meeting of the Eastern Cooperative League. There were a number of Communist delegates to the convention. When they found out they did not have enough votes to control the meeting, they set out to obstruct it, and succeeding in preventing it from doing any business worth mentioning. Mother and I entered the meeting knowing very little about Communists, and left as their enemies, which we have been ever since 1948. From 1930 to 1942 I worked for, and with, various New York metropolitan area consumer cooperatives. They were subject to attempts at communist infiltration almost continuously. Both Mrs. Hyde and I took our part in trying to block this. From 1939 to 1941 I was the District Sales Manager of Greater New York for the Farm Bureau Insurance Companies of Ohio (now Nationwide). No one could get an agent's contract from the companies in my district except through me. 
    Apparently the Comrades were anxious to infiltrate the outfit because a continuous stream applied for contracts. The fact that we had no specifically Communist type trouble from any agent I appointed leads me to think that my screening was successful. In our first few years in Columbus we met a few people we suspected of Communist leanings, but we have not been aware of such since the end to the Wallace campaign." [QJ: No footnote for source of this quote!]
     … The Security File of William Hyde contains a copy of a 1956 FBI investigative report (Security of Government Employees) on Sylvia Ludlow Hyde aka Mrs. John Hoke who is the sister of Ruth Paine….

    From FBI McAvoy Report on Sylvia Hyde Hoke
    According to Herbert Philbrick, the mother of Ruth Hyde Paine, a Unitarian Minister, Mrs. Carol E. Hyde, was a radical: "Ruth Paine's mother, Mrs. Carol E. Hyde, was active in the Woman's International League for Peace and Freedom, one of the very first fronts I came to know through the Cambridge Youth Council." (If this was correct, why did the CIA consider her husband for employment)? The FBI stated that Carol E. Hyde was insane, and had been institutionalized for mental illness. J. Lee Rankin of the Warren Commission was informed that these reports were Secret. The FBI also discovered that Carol E. Hyde had allegedly admitted to neighbors that she was a communist….
    The sister of Ruth Paine, Sylvia Ludlow Hyde Hoke (born October 2, 1929), worked at the Labor Department from 1949 to 1953. She started working at the CIA in 1954. Her cover was Personnel Research Technician, Placement and Employee Relations Division, Director of Civilian Personnel, Headquarters, Department of the Air Force, Washington, D.C. Marina Oswald told this researcher in 1994: "Ruth Paine never mentioned her sister was in the CIA." The Sylvia Hyde Security File 348 201 was held by the Office of Security, Security Analysis Group. On June 15, 1955, this CIA Official Routing Slip from Bruce Solie was sent to (Deleted) whose initials were "wmw"- "Remarks: Please have file set up on Sylvia Hyde Hoke nee Hyde MS 8201."
     … On March 21, 1956, the Department of the Air Force issued Sylvia Hoke a Final Secret Clearance which remained in effect until May 31, 1957, six months after the investigation by OSI, at which time Sylvia Hyde resigned her cover employment with the U.S. Air Force to accompany her husband overseas to Germany. As of 1965 the above clearance was still in effect. Sylvia Hyde Hoke was granted a Top Secret Clearance from the Agency for International Development on April 17, 1956. On September 20, 1956, and on September 21, 1956, the CIA noted that Sylvia Hyde Hoke's name appeared in FBI Reports about her father, William A. Hyde….

    "Hoke's mother-in-law is Helen Hoke Watts, who is a partner in a New York publishing firm with Dorothy Wilson, aka Dorothy Wilson Seligson, aka Mrs. Lou Seligson, who has been identified as a member of the Communist Party. Wilson is known to have been in contact with Isadore Gibby Needleman concerning financial payments received by her from Bernard Geis (1962 to 1963)." Gibby Needleman was an attorney who represented the Amtorg Trading Corporation, the registered Russian Trade Agency in the United States….

    Ruth Paine's brother-in-law, John Lindsey Hoke, (born June 26, 1925, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), worked for the American Automobile Association from 1951 to 1957. He accepted an appointment with the International Cooperation Administration (the predecessor of the Agency for International Development) on February 4, 1956, as a "audio visual consultant (regional) to be assigned to the U.S. Operations Mission (USOM), Panama City, Panama." John Lindsey Hoke told the Deputy Director of Communications of the International Cooperation Administration, Gale Griswold, that, "while assigned in Latin America he had been requested, and did, intelligence type work for the American Embassy." Gale Griswold did not know for whom John Lindsey Hoke worked, or what his job was. On June 24, 1957, John Lindsey Hoke was transferred to Paremaribo, Surinam, where he worked with the International Cooperation Administration's Office of Program Support, Communications Research Division. One of his family members could not adapt to the field and Hoke returned to Washington, D.C. where he worked with the Agency for International Development in the Office of Program Support, Communications Research Division. Ruth Paine stated, "You want to know why he left - his wife couldn't stand Surinam." A notation in Hoke's Naval Intelligence File was "Mrs. Van Sast, CIA, on September 25, 1962, called and wanted to know Hoke's TS clearance and basis." On June 30, 1963, Hoke terminated his employment with AID, no reason given….

    Agency For International Development personnel and security records reflected that Congressman Porter Hardy, Chairman, Subcommittee on Government Operations, held hearings on John Lindsey Hoke on August 13, 1962, that produced evidence that Hoke seemed to be serving two masters, in connection with a solar-powered boat project between AID and Hoffman Electronics Corporation of California under circumstances which Congressman Hardy described as "collusion." Hoffman's president denied company profit on the contract. Hoffman "denied banality and explained false limousine fares covered purchases." A newspaper clipping, undated, Washington Daily News, stamped September 25, 1962, reflects results of a committee hearing, that caption read "Aid Official Has Wings Clipped." This article charged that Hoke was the promoter of a project to finance a solar powered boat for use in Surinam while at the same time he was planning to "make personal profit from the venture." On November 9, 1962, Assistant United States Attorney, Fredrick G. Smith declined prosecution in the case on the grounds that violation of Federal laws by Hoke were merely a technical nature. Hoke was embittered over the way this Congressional investigation was handled….
    Ruth Paine visited the Hokes in August 1963. In August 1963 Ruth Paine was in Washington D.C. to attend a mass civil rights march. [WCE 1983 page 7] Ruth Paine described her trip in a letter to Marina: "Tomorrow we and the children will go to Baltimore, Maryland, where Michael's brother and wife live. We will spend one day there and then we will go back further to Washington, where we will stay with sister until Thursday. Then back to Paoli again, where we will wait for my father. He will be here with us for two days. I expect to be in Paoli until September 10, 1963, and then to go to Ohio and Indiana, where our relatives and friends live, and to arrive in New Orleans on the 20th..." [WCE 78 p253] When Hoke's Request for Liaison Approval was renewed on August 13, 1964, it was identical to the others except for a block stamp that read "On August 20, 1964, Subject's Security Officer advised that Subject was cleared for access to classified information up to and including Top Secret TERMINATED June 30, 1963. Return, no action."

    … Ruth Paine claimed her first meeting with OSWALD happened purely by chance. Michael Paine said he met Everette Glover at the Unitarian Church. Everette Glover asked him if I wanted to meet a Marine who had defected, then redefected, from the Soviet Union. Michael Paine: "I thought, 'Oh boy, that sounds interesting.' It never struck me too odd that he should be allowed to come home. To be allowed back would be a feather in the cap of the United States. So I didn't have trouble. Without asking him, I assumed that was why he was so readily allowed back. I expected to find him politically interesting. And I didn't find him that way. He was very different from the kinds of people who had come to talk to my father. He didn't like complexities."

    Michael Paine did not attend Everette Glover's party, but Ruth Paine did. In July 1993 Ruth Paine stated: "This whole thing is still very painful. Kennedy was the first President I ever voted for who won. I had no association with the Dallas White Russian community. I did not know DeMohrenschildt. The party was put on by Everette Glover. I sang English Madrigals with Everette. That was the only time I met DeMohrenschildt. A colorful fellow, though."

    It was pointed out to Ruth Paine that the HSCA linked her father to George DeMohrenschildt. Ruth Paine: "Well it might be, you know, things happen."

    Barbara LaMonica, Steve Jones and Carol Hewett

    Article "The Paines," in the Fourth Decade, May 1996.

    Violet's name was listed as a teacher in the San Francisco Workers' School, according to HUAC hearings in 1954. In testimony, one witness said she was a Communist.

    Miscellaneous Notes

    Below are a few tidbits of information which do not fit into the above narrative. They are included here only as unrelated footnotes which may be found of interest to some readers.

    1. Only two weeks after the Kennedy assassination, December 5, 1963, Bruce Solie (of the Security Analysis Group, SAG) felt it necessary to inform the Chief in the Office of Security, Security Research Staff (OS/SRS) of Ruth Hyde Paine's travel during the preceding summer:

    What was the "Bielefeldt case" investigated by CIA?

    2. When I searched the term "Chief, Security Research Staff" in the Mary Ferrell database, it returned an interesting file from the same era in which the Orrs were traveling in the Soviet Union, one pertaining to an Austrian actress named Hedwig "Hede" Manning, the wife of Rutgers professor, Dr. Paul Wilhelm Massing, which was flagged with a cautionary note dated 12 February 1965, apparently by Morse Allen. Ms. Manning defected from the Soviet underground in East Germany to testify on behalf of the FBI in the Alger Hiss trial in 1949. She first came to the United States in 1926, but acted as a Soviet spy while here from 1929-1938, when she defected. She wrote a book published in 1951 entitled This Deception.

    During the years Hede Manning was under surveillance, prior to creation of the CIA, reports were signed by Special Agent C. Donald Dudley of the FBI, who by 1960 was officially working for the CIA and living in Silver Spring, MD.

    3.  In 1959, according to John Newman, Oswald and the CIA: The Documented Truth About the Unknown Relationship Between the U.S. Government and the Alleged Killer of JFK, Robert L. Bannerman was Deputy Director of Security, and Bruce Solie and Paul Gaynor worked on his staff (p. 57).

    4.  The university’s first president, David Starr Jordan, a graduate of Cornell, had been recruited from Indiana University. He was a member of the American Peace Society and a supporter of the League of Nations, and he spoke often at Stanford’s Cosmopolitan Club. This organization first began in 1903 and spread to other campuses to bring together “in one brotherhood men from different countries, to learn the customs, viewpoints, and characteristics of other nationalities, to remove racial prejudices, and to establish international friendships.” It was akin to Andrew Carnegie’s endowment for international peace movement.

    5.  Silvermaster was living in Oakland at the time of the 1930 census, giving his occupation as professor at a private school, after having taking his oath of citizenship in San Francisco in 1927. In 1946 "Dr. N. Gregory Silvermaster" was shown as an employee of the War Assets Administration (statistics and progress reports division) in Washington, D.C., whose head was Quartermaster General Edmund B. Gregory. The War Assets Administration itself fell under the umbrella in 1946 of the Office of  War Mobilization and Reconstruction, whose director of Contract Settlement was H. Chapman Rose. By 1962, Rose was Richard Nixon's tax attorney.
    Several years ago while working on a totally separate project, I came across the War Assets Administration and wrote the following:
    Bob Prescott of Flying Tigers
    In November, 1944 Robert Prescott had met with a group of Los Angeles businessmen in Acapulco, Mexico, including one of Edwin Pauley's fellow UC Berkeley regents, Samuel B. Mosher, who wanted to establish an air freight line along the U.S. and Mexican west coast, to be called Aero-Azteca. The investors included Signal Oil Company. They agreed to form a syndicate, with Mosher's group matching whatever Prescott could raise. Prescott found 14 Navy surplus cargo aircraft from the War Assets Administration and collected cash from friends from the American Volunteer Pilots unit (AVP, popularly known as the "Flying Tigers") who had flown with him in China. This group of American civilians who fought with Chiang Kai-Shek in China before the U.S. entered the war... had an important role in the setting up what William Casey would later call an "off-the-shelf" method of financing covert operations for the CIA and other black operations not disclosed to Congress.
    What is not mentioned at the Flying Tiger history website linked above is that pilots were known to fly opium for the Kuomintang to put money in the coffers of the Nationalist Chinese Army. Documentation for this fact was given in my 2002 essay at footnote 11.

    Warnning: Do NOT Get Caught While Searching!!
    Your IP : - Country : - City:
    Your ISP TRACKS Your Online Activity! Hide your IP ADDRESS with a VPN!
    Before you searching always remember to change your IP adress to not be followed!
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    If we can believe what lifelong spy E. Howard Hunt told his son a short time before his death, he and his friend and colleague Frank Sturgis aka Frank Fiorini had been in contact with a covert operative (contract killer)  named David Morales in Miami in 1963. The story Morales told was that Chief of Western Hemisphere for the CIA, Bill Harvey, had chosen him for a team tasked with the murder of the President. Harvey had told Morales he had been selected by Cord Meyer, Jr., Chief of Covert Action for the CIA, and that Meyer was also working with a Texan named David Atlee Phillips and a Cuban named Antonio Veciano. Following is an excerpt from Saint John Hunt's book, Bond of Secrecy, as well as miscellaneous research relating to the names he mentioned.

    Excerpt from 
    © 2008 Saint John Hunt,
    All Rights Reserved
     pages 52- 54

    "Now let's understand that what I tell you must be kept in secrecy and you'll never reveal any of this
    without my approval. Understood?"

    I nodded in agreement and then I wheeled him back to his bedroom. After making him as comfortable as I could, this is what he told me.

    In 1963 my father and Frank Sturgis met with David Morales, a contract killer for the CIA at a safe house in Miami. Morales explained that he had been picked by Bill Harvey, a rogue and unstable CIA agent with a long history of black ops for a secret "off the board" assignment.

    It was Morales' understanding that this project was coming down through a chain of command which started with LBJ, [who was] then the vice President. Intrigued, my father listened on.

    Harvey told Morales that he'd been brought in by Cord Meyer, a CIA agent with international connections, who in turn was working with David Phillips and Antonio Veciana. Phillips was CIA station chief in Mexico City and deeply involved in the dangerous world of the Cuban underground. Veciana was the Cuban founder of the violent anti-Castro Alpha 66 group; bent on overthrowing Castro by any means necessary. All these men shared a common ground; a hatred for Kennedy who they felt was dangerous for this country's political
    future, and had abandoned them in their time of need.

    Cord Meyer had his own reason to hate Kennedy; his wife Mary was one of Kennedy's many mistresses and the gossip surrounding them infuriated Cord who swore revenge. (Later Mary Meyer would be mysteriously murdered and her personal diary stolen. It's interesting to note that James Angleton, chief spook of  counter intelligence was known to have broken in to her apartment and stolen the diary. The rumor was that Mary Meyer had kept detailed notes about Kennedy and perhaps had information about his death. We'll never know.)

    Of the men mentioned thus far, my father knew Cord Meyer, David Phillips, Frank Sturgis and Bill Harvey. He'd never met nor heard of Morales until that night and claims he's never heard of Antonio Veciana. This seems unlikely because Alpha 66 was the leading anti-Castro faction in the Cuban underground.

    David Atlee Phillips worked with my father closely and was actually recruited into the CIA by him when Phillips worked as a journalist in Santiago, Chile. When Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Russian Consulate in Mexico City in the summer of '63, it was Phillips who was station chief there. Although Phillips denied ever meeting Oswald, Antonio Veciana gave evidence that he had met with Oswald and his case officer, a man known to him only as Mau
    rice Bishop, in Mexico City. Although unwilling to identify Phillips as Bishop, Veciana did provide a detailed description of Bishop to a sketch artist and the resulting drawing looked very much like Phillips.

    I sat by my father's bedside and asked "what happened then?"

    "Well, I asked them what this assignment was." Sturgis looked at Morales and then at my father and calmly said "killing that son of a bitch Kennedy!" My father said he was stunned but I don't think he would have been that surprised; getting rid of Kennedy was a common topic of conversation among the Cuban exiles. The truth of the matter is that Kennedy was hated by much of the military-industrial complex. He was viewed as soft on communism and many factions of the government, the exiles, the Mafia, and just about everyone else was looking to get Kennedy out. My father then simply asked "You guys seem to have enough people, what is it that you need me for?"

    "Well," Frank said, "you're somebody we all look up to…we know how you feel about the man (Kennedy), are you with us?" My father looked around the room for a minute and said "Look, if Bill Harvey has anything to do with this, you can count me out. The man is an alcoholic and a psycho."

    "You're right Eduardo", laughed Frank, "but that SOB has the balls to do it." The meeting ended; my father thought it nothing more than the usual 'death to Kennedy' ranting.

    The next day when my father and I were alone in the house, we discussed ways that we could divulge certain information to Giamarco and Costner without giving anything away. My father came up with a good solution: put it in code. With that plan in mind, my father provided me with a hand written diagram outlining the chain of command, a list of people who were involved, and a descriptive time line of the events that led to the 'big event'. This was the name we used to refer to JFK's murder. He provided a code for each name such as 'Nu' for LBJ, 'Beta' for Cord Meyer and so forth.

    He also wrote a few pages of background material on Sturgis, Phillips, and Cord Meyer. The reason for this was that he wanted me to type out a descriptive outline in code form and fax it to Giamarco. Hopefully it would be enough to initiate a formal agreement and a good faith payment. My father wanted $150,000. to be deposited in an account. In view of the fact that Costner and Giamarco had been dangling a multi-million dollar figure for a documentary, a book, and DVD sales and rentals, I didn't think that $150,000 was too much. I had to wait until Laura was out of the house to type it up and fax it off.

    Shooter fired from grassy knoll.
    Before I returned to California I had one more conversation about JFK with my father. He related to me that Oswald had in fact fired on the President that day but there was also another man, a French assassin, firing from the famous grassy knoll. The man's' name sounded something like Sarte or Satre and he had probably been recruited for the job by Cord Meyer who had connections to the Corsican underworld. In his own diagram, my father outlined 'French con. Man…grassy knoll'.

    Why was Cord Meyer, Jr. interested in stopping publication of Alfred McCoy's The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (Harper and Row, 1972) before it came out in 1972?

    See footnote 4 to chapter 13, Henrik Kruger's Great Heroin Coup:
    Prior to the publication of this book [Politics of Heroin by McCoy] on 20 August 1972, Cord Meyer, Jr., a CIA covert operations division leader, visited Harper and Row to demand the galleys. The publisher refused, subject to receipt of an official CIA request. When that came, the proofs were delivered over McCoy's objections. The agency returned them with corrections, but the publisher rejected them, and the book was published unaltered.
    Brief history Cord Meyer
    From a summary made  from snips taken from John Simkin's Spartacus website:
    Allen W. Dulles made contact with Cord Meyer in 1951. He accepted the invitation to join the CIA. Cord was a graduate of Yale, and a darling of the East Coast elite in power at the time. Dulles told Meyer he wanted him to work on a project that was so secret that he could not be told about it until he officially joined the organization. Meyer was to work under Frank Wisner, director of the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the CIA.
    Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."
    click to enlarge
    But by August, 1953, Joseph McCarthy had accused Cord Meyer of being a communist!
    By 1954, Cord Meyer became disillusioned with life in the CIA. It would not be the last time. In November, 1954, Meyer replaced Thomas Braden as head of International Organizations Division. Meyer began spending a lot of time in Europe. One of Meyer's tasks was to supervise Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the United States government broadcasts to Eastern Europe.
    According to Nina Burleigh (A Very Private Woman) Meyer was "overseeing a vast 'black' budget of millions of dollars channeled through phony foundations to a global network of associations and labor groups that on their surface appeared to be progressive".
    Young Man on a Crusade in 1948

    Time Magazine - OPINION:
    "In a Drawing Room," Feb. 16, 1948 

    Cord Meyer, 1948
    Cord Meyer Jr., 27, is a pale young man with a preoccupied smile and wavy brown hair. His paleness and his preoccupation are the marks of war: he was very nearly killed on Guam. He lost an eye and had his face shattered when a Jap grenade exploded in his foxhole.* Since his discharge from the Marines, Cord Meyer has been a young man on a crusade. He is the president of United World Federalists, which seeks to save the world through a limited federation before an atomic war destroys it.

    He has been talking night & day, at colleges, over the radio, to public audiences, to anyone and everyone who will listen. He has written a book (Peace or Anarchy) which, while not exactly a bestseller, has gone into five printings of 13,000 copies.

    Last week he spoke in the graceful drawing room of Manhattan's English Speaking Union.
    The middle-aged audience listened to him attentively, then engaged him in spirited debate. Cord Meyer is quick on his feet, sure of his position, talks fast, and is convinced that there is no time to lose.

    The Plan. 

    Cord Meyer is the son of a wealthy New York real estate man and onetime diplomat. Before World War II, he was a top honor student at Yale and editor of the Yale Lit. After he was wounded and sent home from the Pacific, he married Mary Pinchot, the comely niece of Pennsylvania's late Governor Gifford Pinchot. He had got started on his crusade when he served as "veteran aide" to Delegate Harold Stassen at the San Francisco Conference. There he saw the United Nations born. He deplored the veto, which left U.N. virtually powerless to prevent aggression.

    The Hope. 

    He sees no hope in U.N. as it is now, calling it "a weak league of sovereign, armed states preparing for war." As his ideas took shape, he framed a program. He wants: 1) an agreement among all nations to surrender their arms to U.N., retaining only a force big enough to keep internal order; 2) a U.N. police force to defend all nations from aggression; and 3) an Assembly acting as the world's chief legislative body, with a Security Council acting as a Cabinet.

    He is not proposing a One-World government and world constitution; that would take too much time — more time, he thinks, than the world has. He is young enough to feel that his elders are timid, and mature enough to know that the present uneasy peace cannot last. And he is being heard. He disregards cynics. He thinks of himself as a practical realist and considers optimism foolish but hope necessary. "If this hope is naive," he says, "then it is naive to hope."

    * His twin brother was killed on Okinawa.


    Time Magazine - THE CONGRESS:
    "World Architects," Monday, Feb. 27, 1950 

    Will Clayton of Houston, TX
    For a fortnight the members of the special Senate Foreign Relations subcommittee had sat with furrowed brows, listening intently to eight different proposals for taking apart and reassembling the world. By last week their files were stacked with thick mimeographed statements and their heads whirled from the barrage of testimony.

    "Stalin is winning the cold war," warned white-thatched Will Clayton, onetime Under Secretary of State. "Even if we should be so fortunate as to
    escape another shooting war there will hardly be any occasion for great rejoicing if we find ourselves . . . isolated politically and eco nomically, our friends picked off one by one and added to Russia's satellites . . ."

    Sincerity & Good Will.

    Clayton was speaking for the Atlantic Union Committee, headed by former Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts. Atlantic Union was a lineal descendant of Union Now, founded and expounded by Clarence Streit, longtime crusader for a union of free peoples. Its blueprint envisioned a political, military and economic federation of the original seven North Atlantic Treaty [NATO] nations (U.S., Canada, Britain, France, The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg).

    Others were working towards much the same goal by somewhat different paths:
    • ex-marine Cord Meyer Jr., whose United World Federalists was designed to transform the U.N. itself into a world government; 
    • Hamilton Fish Armstrong, editor of Foreign Affairs, who urged the "faithful members" of U.N. to bypass the Soviet veto and go on about their pressing business; 
    • Ely Culbertson, high priest of contract bridge, who wanted an international land, sea and air force (drawn principally from small nations) to prevent aggression.
    No one doubted the sincerity or good will of any of the planners. All were bold and imaginative. They had in common a mingled sense of urgency and high ideals. But their congressional audience listened with increasing skepticism.

    Pertinent Questions. 

    The skepticism was reinforced by Assistant Secretary of State John D. Hickerson, who brought up some painfully realistic facts. He raised a pertinent question: "Just how far are we willing to go in compromising our way of life and our institutions?" Was the U.S. willing to agree to common citizenship, a common currency and taxes, a common standard of living within any federation? Who, he asked, could be sure that other nations would agree that the laws and institutions of the U.S. should be the basis for world government? Said Hickerson: "How far would the American people be prepared to go in altering our form of government? Are they prepared to have the representatives of the American people a minority in the parliament of such a union?"

    The U.S., added Hickerson, was already moving as rapidly as practicable toward closer world relations through the Atlantic pact, ECA and the U.N. "The establishment at this time of such a federation," said Hickerson, "far from providing additional strength, could be a source of weakness and greater internal divisions."

    The Senators seemed to agree. By week's end they were beginning to feel like bewildered home builders who had listened to too many architects. They limited witnesses sternly to five minutes and indicated that they would settle for a resolution pledging renewed U.S. support to the aims and ideals of U.N.—which, after all, was only five years old.
     The White Russian--A Powerful Cocktail

    From: THE JFK CASE: The Twelve Who Built The Oswald Legend
    (Part 6: White Russians Keep An Eye On Oswald In Dallas) By Bill Simpich

    The Dallas-Fort Worth community of Soviet and Eastern European emigres - referred to as "White Russians" - took Oswald and his family under their wing upon their arrival from the USSR in May 1962. Consider the importance of White Russian defectors as spies. A re-defector like Lee Harvey Oswald was even more exotic. The ability of a defector to report what is happening behind enemy lines is the ultimate counterintelligence prize.

    The White Russian community settled on using George de Mohrenschildt as Oswald's mentor, one of the few liberals in the community who enjoyed spending time with the man. This chapter will focus on de Mohrenschildt's intelligence connections with Radio Free Europe, key RFE officials Allen Dulles and Cord Meyer, and CI chief James Angleton....

    Solidarists were being used by CIA in early 1963.
    The Dallas White Russian community was tightly aligned with an anti-Soviet movement known by its Russian initials of "NTS" (National Alliance of Russian Solidarists). NTS was founded in 1930 by "second generation" White Russian emigres. At that time, most of them were living in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. Yugoslavia is where Mr. and Mrs. Igor Voshinin met and married in early 1940 - they moved to Dallas, were active in NTS, and knew Oswald. During this era, "Solidarism" was a quasi-fascist ideology that saw corporations as an ideal and Benito Mussolini as a model of leadership.

    In the 1940s, NTS was thoroughly enmeshed with Hitler's war effort. After Germany attacked the USSR during World War II, NTS was allowed to set up a Berlin headquarters and encouraged to proselytize in Soviet territories under German control among both POWs and civilians. When the tides of war shifted, NTS swung back into alliance with the Americans.

    After World War II, the CIA included NTS within the Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty organization. Radio Free Europe focused on the East European Soviet satellites, while Radio Liberty focused on the USSR itself. A House report described Radio Free Europe and Radio Free Liberty as "the best known CIA proprietaries". These were pet projects of International Organizations chief Cord Meyer, who headed these radios from 1954 to 1971. Meyer consulted directly and frequently to CIA director Allen Dulles before making any controversial decisions. As described earlier in this series, CI chief Jim Angleton and Cord Meyer were the best of friends. Meyer described Angleton as his hero. They were also Legend Makers #1 and #2 for Lee Harvey Oswald, as they had very special relationships with the people who either befriended or studied Oswald.

    After meeting with Meyer, Radio Liberty decreed that anyone adhering to NTS'"organizational discipline" would not be allowed to work at RL. NTS infiltrated and dominated groups that challenged its supremacy. NTS members tried to sabotage the installations and intimidate the exile staffs. Meyer saw it as part of his responsibility to "try to provide the radio with the counter-intelligence protection against this continuing intimidation...it was a never ending task".

    ...De Mohrenschildt had an extremely deep background with the intelligence community, going back for more than twenty years. His handler appears to have been Thomas Schreyer, identified as "the acting chief"of the Cord Meyer's International Organizations Division [IOD] back in 1956. This means that Schreyer worked very closely with Cord Meyer. [IOD merged in October 1962 with covert action staff.] In April 1963, the Domestic Operations Division asked for traces on de Mohrenschildt, with Schreyer's name provided as the source for any follow-up....

    The CIA admitted before the assassination that de Mohrenschildt was "of interest" to them. CIA Dallas resident agent J. Walton Moore stayed in touch with de Mohrenschildt, which will be discussed later in this series. Covert action chief Richard Helms acknowledged that de Mohrenschildt and his wife provided useful foreign intelligence in 1957. His brother Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, described by the CIA as being "employed in a confidential capacity by the U.S. government," is said to have been one of the founders of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. A lengthy CIA-created list entitled "Companies and People Known to be Associated with de Mohrenschildt" includes only one political group: "Dallas Committee Radio Free Europe."De Mohenschildt's wife in Philadelphia, Phyllis Washington, also worked for Radio Free Europe in the early fifties.

    The Radio Free Europe connection is an important link between Cord Meyer and George de Mohrenschildt. George couldn't get OSS credentials during World War II because of security disapproval. He was subjected to five separate investigations by intelligence during the 1940s and 50s. Officers like Meyer and Schreyer, however, understood the nature of his relationship with people such as the Jacqueline Bouvier family and the White Russian community. A CIA memo notes that George knew the families of the Kennedys and the Oswalds better than anyone else.

    One of George's contacts exposes his hidden CIA connections. In 1954, a young oil lawyer named Herbert Itkin wrangled a meeting in Philadelphia with Allen Dulles, the first chief of Radio Free Europe and future CIA chief. Dulles set him up with a meeting with de Mohrenschildt, who told Itkin he was "from that man in Philadelphia" and that his name was Philip Harbin. William Gaudet verified at an HSCA deposition that he knew George under his alias as Philip Harbin. De Mohrenschildt's beloved and soon-to-be new wife, Jeanne, was from Harbin, China. Angleton testified that Dulles was a very close friend of his own family. Angleton had both an Itkin file and a "Mike/Portio/Haiti" file (Itkin's code name was Portio). Itkin claimed he met "Harbin" in 1954, while CIA general counsel Larry Houston claimed that he could not find any Itkin files prior to 1964 after thousands of hours of search. This was probably because Angleton's personal Itkin and Portio files were kept apart from the CIA records system, and were only discovered after Angleton was fired in 1974. All indications are that de Mohrenschildt was provided to Dulles by Angleton.

    Working under the Harbin alias, de Mohrenschildt worked with Itkin in oil matters as a nonpaid, voluntary agent between 1954 to 1960, before Itkin moved on to work with another agent. Itkin's skills enabled US Attorney Bob Morgenthau to win convictions against New York political boss Carmine DeSapio and city commissioner James Marcus. Morgenthau's office described Itkin as "probably the most important informer the FBI ever had outside the espionage field. He never lied to us. His information was always accurate."

    By May 1963, Itkin became the attorney for the Haitian government-in-exile. CIA documents show that Itkin's handler in 1963 was Mario Brod, who was recruited in Italy by James Angleton during World War II and had operational involvements in Haiti. Before his brother was killed, Bobby Kennedy himself was relying on mob tips from Itkin. In 1966, Itkin was reportedly researching under his code name "Portio," while Angleton held onto his private "Mike/Portio/Haiti" file. In 1968, CIRA (CI research and analysis chief) Ray Rocca swore that the "CI Staff definitely never was in contact" with Itkin. By 1971, CIRA's bird-dog investigator Paul Hartman was asking to review Itkin's CIA file, no doubt to educate himself on some fine points....

    A report by the House Select Committee on Assassinations described Radio Free Europe and Radio Free Liberty as "the best known CIA proprietaries": Narration by G. Robert Blakey, Chief Counsel, HSCA Appendix Volumes/ HSCA Report, Volume IV, p. 3.
    Cord Meyer was the division chief in charge of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty from 1954 until 1971: Puddington, p. 24.

    After meeting with Meyer, Radio Liberty decreed that anyone adhering to NTS'"organizational discipline" would not be allowed to work at RL, because of NTS' history of infiltrating organizations and dominating them: Puddington, p. 162.

    NTS had its headquarters near Berlin in Frankfurt: Memorandum by Thomas A. Parrott to the Special Group, 4/26/63, p. 3, Miscellaneous CIA Series / NARA Record Number: 104-10306-10024.

    Meyer saw it as part of his responsibility to "try to provide the radio with the counter-intelligence protection against this continuing intimidation"...: Cord Meyer, Facing Reality, pp. 120-121.

    Coffin looked back on the experience: "It was a fundamentally bad idea...we were quite naive about the use of American power.": Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes (New York, Doubleday: 2007), p. 47.


    The pattern of using secret fund-raising organizations, ostensibly set up for charitable purposes, as cover for CIA activity is so prolific that we venture to say that this pattern has in effect replaced the U.S. Constitution with the model for how the American government works today. It was what Congressman Wright Patman from Texas warned us about before his death, a cry taken up by Congressman Henry B. Gonzales--both men elected from different districts in Texas. (See Final Report of Select Committee to Study Government Operations (1976), p. 185. under the heading "Cover is Blown: The Patman and Ramparts 'Flaps'."

    While helping Catherine Austin Fitts, a friend who worked in the first George Bush presidency, discover how a business she created had been destroyed by some unknown force,  another part of the pattern was disclosed. As explained in the March 30, 2012 post at Cold Case Conspiracy Update Catherine Austin Fitts was fighting the same "financial model" of government action used in killing JFK:
    The NEH [National Endowment for the Humanities] was set up in 1965 after President Lyndon Johnson apparently realized that his assassinated predecessor John Kennedy had appointed a close friend, William Walton, Chairman of the Fine Arts Commission, to assume a covert role in making a back channel contact with Nikita Kruschev of the Soviet Union. Citing David Talbot's book, Brothers, Peter Janney reveals in his own book, Mary's Mosaic, that within days of the assassination of JFK,

    Bobby and Jackie [Kennedy] asked their close friend [Walton] to quickly reschedule his artistic mission to Russia. They wanted him to deliver a special, secret message to Georgi Bolshakov, formerly a KGB agent under journalistic cover in Washington, who [sic] the Kennedys had come to rely upon when they needed to communicate with Khrushchev directly during critical moments. Indeed, Bolshakov had once been referred to by Newsweek as the "Russian New Frontiersman" because he had become so close to Bobby.... Bobby and Jackie knew that through Bolshakov their message to the Soviets would be directly communicated to Nikita Khrushchev. They wanted "the Russian who [sic] they felt best understood John Kennedy to know their personal opinions of the changes in the U.S. government since the assassination."
    After passage of a federal statute setting up the NEH in 1965, President Johnson named former president of Brown University, Barnaby C. Keeney, to be its first chairman. We learn from Martha Mitchell’s Encyclopedia Brunoniana:
    In 1978 it was revealed that Keeney had worked for the Central Intelligence Agency while he was president of Brown. He admitted that he had advised the CIA in matters such as “setting up covert funding operations,” adding in explanation, “I suppose nowadays it is improper to attempt to serve your country ... but then I felt I was doing what I should.”In 1962 Keeney set up the Human Ecology Fund, which Alex Constantine describes in Virtual Governmentas "the financial hub of MK-ULTRA."

    The Human Ecology Fund had been originally created as the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology by Harold Wolff. As explained by the author of this last linked essay:
    Though largely unexamined, the extent of covert CIA funding of American-funded social science research during the 1950s and 1960s was extraordinary. This unexamined state of affairs is all the more problematic considering that over three decades ago, the US Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities [the "Church Committee"] found that
    [t]he CIA’s intrusion into the foundation field in the 1960s can only be described as massive. Excluding grants from the ‘Big Three’ – Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie – of the 700 grants over $10,000 given by 164 other foundations during the period 1963-1966, at least 108 involved partial or complete CIA funding. More importantly, CIA funding was involved in nearly half the grants the non-‘Big Three’ foundations made during this period in the field of international activities. In the same period more than one-third of the grants awarded by non-‘Big Three’ in the physical, life and social sciences also involved CIA funds.

    Bona fide foundations, rather than those controlled by the CIA, were considered the best and most plausible kind of funding cover for certain kinds of operations. A 1966 CIA study explained the use of legitimate foundations was the most effective way of concealing the CIA’s hand as well as [falsely] reassuring members of funding organizations that the organization was in fact supported by private funds. The Agency study contended that this technique was ‘particularly effective for democratically run membership organizations, which need to assure their own unwitting members and collaborators, as well as their hostile critics, that they have genuine, respectable, private sources of income.’ (US Senate 1976: 182-183) [All emphasis added by QJ]
    The Chief of the Covert Action Staff at the time President Kennedy was murdered was none other than Cord Meyer, Jr. We find in top secret sanitized documents released in 1998 that Meyer was reporting to the President's PFIAB, chaired by Dr. James Rhyne Killian, former president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Killian was appointed in 1956  by President Eisenhower and served until April 1963. That same month Clark Clifford moved up from being a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board to replace Killian as chairman. When President Kennedy took office in January 1961, Clark Clifford had been appointed his special counsel--the same position, incidentally, which John Dean was given in Richard Nixon's White House.

    James R. Killian
     Killian only two months before his resignation had become a director at AT&T, formerly known as Bell Labs before its merger with Western Electric. It will be remembered that Ruth Paine's father, William Avery Hyde, educated as a chemical engineer, had worked in New York City at Bell Labs before the company moved many of its operations to Murray Hill, New Jersey.

    After Ruth was born in 1932, at some point prior to 1935, the Hyde family had moved to Malboro Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, approximately 40 miles from AT&T/Bell Lab's new office in Murray Hill. Yet, the chemical engineer reported his occupation as insurance salesman in 1940.

    James R. Killian was "so very important in setting up the national security system during the Eisenhower administration. Key player in setting up the Institute for Defense Analyses, the President's Science Advisory Committee, DARPA, a Princeton-located think tank for the NSA, MITRE and the NRO. He was a MITRE trustee and a board member of the Office of Defense Mobilization. He could also be found at MIT and Tulane and was a close associate of Vannevar Bush."

    Killian's replacement as chairman of PFIAB was Clark Clifford (1906-1998). Special Counsel to the President, 1946-1950; Senior Partner, Clifford & Miller, 1950-1968; President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board member, 1961-1968, Chairman, 1963-1968; Secretary of Defense, March 1968-January 1969; Senior Partner, Clifford & Warnke, 1969-1991. 

    "Clifford recalled that for him the two most valuable members of PFIAB were scientists Dr. Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid Land camera, and Dr. William Baker, who brought to the PFIAB the most recent scientific knowledge and discoveries bearing on the technical acquisition of intelligence information. (Counsel to the President: A Memoir, New York: Random House, 1991, pages 350 ff.)"

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    In attempting to determine what role, if any, Ruth Paine's Hyde family may have had in steering her toward developing a relationship with wife of the returning former defector, Lee Harvey Oswald, a month before his departure from Texas to New Orleans in the spring of 1963, I reviewed research performed several years ago which had been posted on the internet.

    Martin Shackelford once posted the following at an internet group, alt.conspiracy.jfk:
    More from Evica's book, [A Certain Arrogance, republished by TrineDay]:
    •  Evica noticed that the HSCA never called Ruth Paine as a witness.
    • Ruth Paine's parents: Unitarians; associated with a CIA agent. (Though Quakers, and though Dallas had a significant Quaker community, Ruth and Michael Paine became involved with the Unitarians there, claiming there was no Quaker community in Dallas)
    •  Ruth Paine's mother: denounced by Oswald's hero Herbert Philbrick; became a Unitarian minister.
    • Ruth Paine's sister: CIA employee, also involved with Naval Intelligence; her husband was also involved with the CIA and Naval Intelligence, and worked under a USAID cover.
    • Ruth Paine arranged withWilliam Lacy, a colleague ofEdward Lansdale, to create a U.S.-Soviet student exchange program. [This is not exactly what Evica said. Ruth was on a Young Friends Committee trying to get contacts between East and West for exchange program, for which Ambassador Lacy was in charge. He had previously been close to Lansdale in the Philippines.]
    • Ruth and Michael Paine both described Oswald as a Trotskyite Communist. Michael Paine's father: Long-time Trotskyite, suspected of being a government plant in the Socialist Worker's Party, parent group of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. On the phone with Michael after the assassination, he said "we both know who was responsible" for the assassination. Michael Paine's mother: a close friend of Mary Bancroft, OSS spy and the lover of Allen Dulles. Dulles told a friend that conspiracy theorists would have a field day if they knew he had been in Dallas three weeks before the assassination, as well as being linked to the Paines.
    • Michael Paine had worked for the Franklin Institute [in Philadelphia], a conduit for CIA funds. He then worked for defense contractor, Bell Helicopter.
    • George De Mohrenschildt  was the subject of a seven-year FBI investigation, opened in April 1963, shortly before he went to Haiti. He was close to J.Walton Moore, the Dallas chief of the CIA's Domestic Contacts Division, and provided him with copies of material loaned to him by Oswald. He was also close to CIA asset Joseph Dryer. In May 1963, he met with Dorothe Matlock, an Army Intelligence employee who acted as a liaison with the CIA.
    • After the assassination, an Army Intelligence agent selected Ilya Mamantov as the first translator for Marina Oswald.
    • In Mexico City, Oswald was reported seen riding on the back of a motorcycle with a young American Quaker. The young man was a CIA double agent. There was an initial attempt to identify the motorcyclist as another young man, but that fellow hadn't arrived in Mexico City until after Oswald had left--he mentioned that the Quakers there were talking about Oswald, and after the assassination were very worried that he had been there.
    • In Dallas, Oswald attended a meeting [of the American Civil Liberties Union] at a Unitarian church, and had a long talk with the minister, who later mentioned his impressions to a reporter. When the FBI contacted the minister, he denied knowing anything about Oswald. After the assassination, the FBI conducted an extensive investigation nationwide among Unitarians, but no records resulting from it have been released. [See  John Kelin, "Pictures of the Paines;"Letter from Greg Olds.]
    [What follows was possibly taken from excerpts of A.J. Weberman's research posted online. See NODULEX16.]


    When Ruth Paine was 15 years old, she preached [sic] with a traveling Bible school. Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission: "I was asked to be a leader, a teacher with a traveling Bible school. We went to three different small towns in Indiana and Ohio, and taught young children. I led songs and games and read stories." Ruth Paine became a Quaker while attending Antioch College in 1951 and was a delegate to two conferences of the Friends World Committee in England in 1952. She graduated from Antioch College in 1955. In 1993 Ruth Paine described herself as a financial contributor to the Friends World Committee.


    According to the Warren Report:
    "In 1955 Mrs. Paine was active in the work of the North American Young Friends Committee, which, with State Department cooperation, was making an effort to lessen the tensions between Soviet Russia and the United States by means of ...exchanges of young Russians and Americans. It was during this period that Mrs. Paine became interested in the Russian language. Mrs. Paine participated in [and arranged] a Russian-American student exchange program...Ruth Paine was the "convener or clerk" of the East-West Contacts Group of the North American Young Friends Committee which was established in 1955. She has corresponded, until recently, with a Russian schoolteacher." [WR p285]

    Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission:
    Paine: It was at this conference, toward the later part, arising out of a discussion of the need for communication and more of it between the United States and the Soviet Union, by no means the bulk of business of this conference, but a small committee of interested people, was working on this matter.

    Jenner: Are these interested young people?

    Paine: These are all young Friends.

    Jenner: And you were then of what age, 1955. Twenty-three?

    Paine: Yes...This was at the time that plans first began for encouraging an exchange of young people between the Soviet Union and the United States, and I became active with the committee planning
    that, and from the planning there was an exchange, three Soviet young people came to this country and four young Quakers went to the Soviet Union... The Committee worked on: "Organization of pen pal correspondence between American and Soviet young people." In 1958 Ruth Paine was involved in a Russian/American exchange program on a leadership level. [Friends Journal 4.26.58]


    Another Quaker group, the American Friends Service Committee, sent a delegation to the Soviet Union in 1955. The American Friends Service Committee was very much on the Left. The Friends World Committee soon sent a delegation to the Soviet Union. The CIA had an interest in "cultural exchange programs."

    CIA DD/P Richard Bissell stated:
    "Exchange of person programs...are more effective if carried out by private auspices than if officially supported by the United States Government." [Marchetti Cult of Intell. p52]
    The SSCIA reported that from 1964 to 1974
    "the FBI identified over 100 intelligence officers among the approximately 400 Soviet students who attended universities as part of an East-West student exchange program. Also, in this program's 14-year history, more than 100 American students were the target of Soviet recruitment approaches in the USSR." [SSCIA For. & Mil. Intell. V1 p164]
    What was the story behind the Friends World Committee?

    Ruth Paine answered negatively when she was asked if she had been aware of any intelligence community interest in student exchange programs. She stated:
    "The Soviets that came over were real party-line types, very doctrinaire."
    Ruth Paine was asked to name the State Department official who was involved with her program. She responded, "I haven't a clue, but you know they were working on cultural exchange at that point. Trying to make a crack in the Iron Curtain." Michael Paine stated, "I remember reading about that kind of thing in The Times and finding it so frustrating that a genuine effort to try to get person-to-person contact was being subverted by the government there."


    Neither CIA Headquarters, nor the CIA's Office of Security traces on Ruth Paine have been released as of 1996, and she was mentioned only tangentially in the HSCA Report -
    "They never even called me. Someone called - to be sure where I was - if they wanted to call me."
    Despite much correspondence with the USSR, Ruth Paine did not show up on [James J. Angleton's secret CIA project to intercept mail destined for the Soviet Union and China begun in 1952HT LINGUAL indices before 1966. (That year an American sent a letter to her from Moscow.) Withheld documents on the Paines included USSS 179-10001-10034, 10036; FBI NARA 179-10001-10091, 10094, 10101, FBI 179-10002-10084, 10244, 10251; HSCA 180-10116-10150; HSCA 180-10112-10450.


    The father of Ruth Paine, William Hyde, had contact with the CIA, and the CIA's Office of Security [presumably Sheffield Edwards (OS)?] had traces on him:
    "Files of the Office of Security reflect that Ruth Paine is the daughter of William Avery Hyde, OS C-157,435, (deleted)."
    William Avery Hyde [CIA SSD-157,435] was an anti-Communist who supported Socialist Party candidate Norman Thomas. Norman Thomas received millions of dollars in CIA subsidies because of his anti-Communist views. [NOTE by this Blogger: Apparently Ruth's parents took her to a rally for Norman Thomas in 1940. Could W.A. Hyde have been infiltrating the Socialists in 1940, much as Oswald was apparently doing in 1962-63? Was that the reason Ruth Hyde Paine was really attempting to learn to speak Russian?]

    William Avery Hyde related :
    "Our introduction [to the Communists] came at the 1929 annual meeting of the Eastern Cooperative League. There were a number of Communist delegates to the convention. When they found out they did not have enough votes to control the meeting, they set out to obstruct it, and succeeding in preventing it from doing any business worth mentioning. [See a Bureau of Labor Statistics study which mentions political discord in the Cooperative Movement in 1930. The Bureau had been doing such studies on co-ops for a number of years by this date and seemed to indicate their increase was a positive step.]
    "Mother and I entered the meeting knowing very little about Communists, and left as their enemies, which we have been ever since 1948."
    [NOTE by this Blogger: It is unknown to whom Hyde made the above statement. There is a strong possibility the quote was taken from a 1957 letter written by Hyde to former Congressman Jerry Voorhis (referred to in footnote 6 of the Barbara LaMonica paper published in The Fourth Decade). Following his defeat by Richard Nixon in the 1946 Congressional election, Voorhis became executive director of the Cooperative League of the USA (CLUSA). Perhaps the letter cited in LaMonica's paper can be found amongst Jerry Voorhis' Papers at Claremont College.
    Hyde's job in 1932 - CLUSA
    [NOTE continued: After Voorhis gave up his Congressional seat to Richard Nixon in January 1947, he was immediately hired by CLUSA. William Avery Hyde had by then been selling CLUSA Service, Inc. insurance and fidelity bonds for years, at least as early as 1932, according to clipping to the left. In October 932 Hyde spoke to the Sunnyside Consumers' Co-operative League, a neighborhood in the western part of Queens, NY. When Voorhis was hired by CLUSA, he moved to Winnetka, Ill. to be near the headquarters at 343 S. Dearborn Street in Chicago. The organization had been founded in the U.S. in 1916 by a medical doctor named James Peter Warbasse, who was president of CLUSA until 1941, when Murray Lincoln replaced him. The name would be changed to National Cooperative Business Association in 1986. Warbasse died in 1957 at his summer home in Woods Hole, MA, located not far from Naushon Island (owned in trust by lineal descendants of the late J.M. Forbes). Warbasse's winter home was in Queens, where he created the community known as Rochdale Village, about 15 miles southeast of Sunnyside, where Hyde spoke in 1932.]
    [Second NOTE: If William and Carol Hyde left the annual meeting of the Eastern Coop League in 1929 as enemies of the Communists, why did he then say they had been enemies only since 1948? What exactly happened in 1948? Why was he even aware of the Eastern Coop League in 1929? Recall that the census of 1930 shows William Hyde was working at Bell Labs in New York City, which is not part of the Eastern Cooperative district based in Boston, and the Hydes did not move to New Jersey until after Ruth was born in New York in 1932.]
    "From 1930 to 1942 I worked for, and with, various New York metropolitan area consumer cooperatives. [NOTE: Why did he change jobs in 1930, after the census was taken?]
    "They [coops] were subject to attempts at communist infiltration almost continuously. Both Mrs. Hyde and I took our part in trying to block this. From 1939 to 1941 I was the District Sales Manager of Greater New York for the Farm Bureau Insurance Companies of Ohio (now Nationwide). No one could get an agent's contract from the companies in my district except through me. Apparently the Comrades were anxious to infiltrate the outfit because a continuous stream applied for contracts. The fact that we had no specifically Communist type trouble from any agent I appointed leads me to think that my screening was successful. In our first few years in Columbus we met a few people we suspected of Communist leanings, but we have not been aware of such since the end to the Wallace campaign." [No source given for this quotation; see above note relative to Jerry Voorhis.]
    A report by Bruce Solie of the CIA generated on December 5, 1963, stated:

    To:         Files
    From:    Chief, Research Branch/OS/SRS
    Subject: PAINE, RUTH
                  nee: HYDE
                  aka: Mrs. Ruth Paine
    1. FBI S.A. Cregar on December 4, 1963, confirmed that the Subject is the daughter of William Avery Hyde, SSD-157435. Cregar was furnished a copy of two 1957 investigative reports on William Avery Hyde, for lead purposes only, and was informed that Hyde was under consideration for a covert use by this Agency in Vietnam in 1957, but was not used. This information had previously been obtained from (deleted) CI/SIG.
    2. Subject is the individual who is taking care of the widow of LEE HARVEY OSWALD and has apparently been quite well known to the widow of LEE HARVEY OSWALD for an undetermined period of time. The possibility that William Avery Hyde was the father of Ruth Paine was previously brought to the attention of Mr. Papich through Mr. O'Neal, CI/SIG. The Security File of William Hyde contains a copy of a 1956 FBI investigative report (Security of Government Employees) on Sylvia Ludlow Hyde aka Mrs. John Hoke who is the sister of Ruth Paine. The file of William Hyde also contains a 1956 OSI report on Sylvia Hoke.
    3. In addition to the above, it was previously known that William Avery Hyde and wife Carol Hyde were associates in the late 1920's and later of Talbot Bielefeldt, #29931, who is currently employed by this agency in FDD. A certain amount of information concerning William Hyde, Carol Hyde, and other associates of Hyde and Bielefeldt during the latter 1920's was furnished by Talbot Bielefeldt during interviews several years ago. At that time the Bielefeldt case was under extensive investigation. 
                                                                       Bruce Solie
    On April 30, 1964, Birch O'Neal generated the following document:
    SUBJECT: Mrs. Ruth Paine nee Hyde

    Shortly after the assassination of President Kennedy the press carried information concerning a Mrs. Ruth Paine who had befriended the OSWALD family. Mr. Bruce Solie, of the Office of Security, called to my attention that the Office of Security has information of possible interest concerning William A. Hyde, who had three children; namely Ruth Hyde, Sylvia Hyde Hoke and Carl Hyde. Mrs. Ruth Paine was known to have had the name Hyde prior to her marriage. On November 29, 1963, I advised Sam Papich to contact Mr. Solie of the Office of Security for information of possible interest in connection with Mrs. Ruth Paine. I indicated to Mr. Papich that the Office of Security information was of possible security significance and consideration and I was subsequently informed that the Bureau had been in touch with Mr. Solie for its information. Birch D. O'Neal Chief, CI/SIG.
    [NARA CIA 1993.07.08.09.:07:31:900520]
    On March 1, 1964, FBI S.A. Charles M. Beall, Jr., ascertained at CIA that its security and foreign indices did not contain any references identifiable with Michael Ralph Paine. CIA advised its only reference to Ruth Avery Hyde, nee Hyde, was set out in CIA Report prepared in 1957 on William Avery Hyde, father of Ruth. This CIA material was furnished the Bureau via Liaison on December 4, 1963, with request the CIA material not be inserted in the Bureau reports. Dallas is cognizant. [FBI 105-1717-225 -- Hosty's name on the "Searched, Indexed, Serialized and Filed April 19, 1964, FBI - Dallas" stamp on this document.]
    NOTE: Birch D. O'Neal was referred to by John Newman in a 1999 presentation at JFK Lancer Conference as "the head of the mole hunting unit, CI/SIG." Searching the Mary Ferrell website for "bureau liaison"turns up one interesting connection with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee in 1960. In a memo from J. Edgar Hoover to Allen Dulles, dated April 14, 1960, Hoover referenced a previous memorandum from Dulles with an attachment signed by William K. Harvey. Hoover stated that the FBI had opened an investigation in March 1960, prior to Dulles' correspondence, on the "Committee of Friends of Cuba," which the FBI thought might be identical to Fair Play for Cuba Committee. He then mentioned the New York Times advertisement, headed "What's Really Happening in Cuba?," which listed the names of numerous people in support of Cuba's revolution, requesting "derogatory information" the CIA had on the individuals named in the ad.

    Hoover's letter, which was addressed to the CIA's Deputy Director of Plans (Richard Bissell was in this post until he was fired by JFK and replaced by Richard Helms after the Bay of Pigs fiasco), contains a note that it "is being sent by Liaison at request of Bureau Liaison representative." The FBI's liaison representative to the CIA was Sam Papich.

    John Newman's book, Oswald and the CIA, also mentioned this advertisement. According to H.P. Albarelli, Jr. in A Secret Order: Investigating the High Strangeness and Synchronicity in the JFK Assassination (Trine Day, 2013), the ad had been placed in the Times by Robert Bruce Taber and Richard Gibson, both former CBS news journalists. Some researchers believe that Taber's admission that he met with Oswald in Cuba in 1961 discounts Oswald's being in the USSR the entire time he claims to have been there, while others, such as Jim Hargrove, believe Taber's statement furnishes evidence that there were two Oswalds--Harvey and Lee.

    Bill Simpich makes the case, however, that shortly after the Bag of Pigs failed invasion of Cuba, the FBI began a
    "campaign of disruption against the FPCC.... During June, 1960, a few months after Oswald’s defection to the USSR in late 1959, J. Edgar Hoover himself sent a memo to the State Department alerting it to the possibility that an imposter was using Oswald’s identity. Hoover was tipped to the problem by a telegram from Harold F. Good at the New York field office. Former Cuban Prime Minister Tony Varona testified to a House committee that he believed Oswald was in Cuba during 1961." In his Counterpunch article, Simpich cited Athan G. Theoharis for the statement that the FBI engaged in eight separate break-ins of FPCC offices to gain evidence to use against Taber and/or his CBS colleague, Richard Thomas Gibson, a black journalist from San Francisco, who refused to furnish to the FBI the membership list of the FPCC. Therefore, operatives broke into the office to photograph a list made available by a confidential political informant whom Simpich identifies as Victor Thomas Vicente. In his 2009 book, The Road to Dallas: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy, David Kaiser states that in July 1963 the FBI had "infiltrated an informer from the New York chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, a Puerto Rican named Victor Thomas Vicente, into Cuba, probably through Mexico City."
    This ongoing campaign would have been reaching its culmination then within two months after Oswald arrival in New Orleans to work (possibly on instructions from Bobby Kennedy) with David Ferrie and Judyth Vary Baker on the bioweapon intended to give cancer to Castro, according to Baker's book, Me and Lee.

    Kaiser says, however, that although Vicente met both Fidel and Che Guevara, he returned from Cuba and was debriefed by the CIA upon his return. He then set about planning a speech to be given in New York City on September 23, 1963, working with Vincent Theodore Lee, to whom Oswald had sent two letters. The first letter dated May 26, 1963, was designated Commission Exhibit #2, and the second written in reply to V.T. Lee's response, was labeled Commission Exhibit #4. This correspondence occurred only a month after Judyth met Lee in line at the New Orleans Post Office. She relates in Me and Lee (page 316) that she paid for the money order for Lee to rent the office for FPCC on May 27, and Lee explained his motives for joining FPCC and setting up a branch of the pro-Castro organization.

    What is not clear is by whom Lee was being directed in this activity. It seems possible his work for the FBI could easily have been of great use by former FBI agent, Louis J. Russell, HUAC's chief investigator after 1949, to undermine the group by proving it to be a front for Communists.

    Ayn Rand and Song of Russia: Communism and Anti-Communism in 1940s Hollywood

    From HSCA file
    Though Russell's name appeared frequently in newspapers throughout the McCarthy era, he is best recognized by Watergate researchers because of the fact he was mentioned in Jim Hougan's books, Spooks and Secret Agenda, as well as in the Anthony Summers book, The Arrogance of Power. According to Summers, in fact, Richard Nixon had worked so closely with Russell prior to the 1948 HUAC hearings in exposing Alger Hiss as a Communist, that the investigator was hired by the Nixon White House during the first term and then moved in 1972 onto the payroll of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP).

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    It has been said by at least one or two Kennedy assassination researchers that Judyth Vary Baker tells a heartrending love story, but that, even if what she says is true that it does not "add anything" to our knowledge about the assassination itself. In my own opinion, that belief is utterly false. What Judyth's story supplies is the answer to the question of what Lee Oswald was really doing in Mexico City in late September . . . and why he went there. It also gives a strong hint about who was responsible for planning the plot. I have arrived at a conclusion that Alton Ochsner was working with someone who was not technically part of the Central Intelligence Agency, although I began my research thinking that Lee believed he was working under Robert Kennedy's design.

    Judyth's book also relates that David Atlee Phillips told Lee Oswald before the two met in Dallas on September 6th that he would be introduced to a contact who would supply a method for the cancer weapon to be taken into Cuba. As we learn below, that was part of a much bigger lie in which Phillips was involved. Phillips must have had an Oswald impostor planted to appear at the Consulate twice after Oswald attempted to gain his visa. The tape of the real Lee Oswald's appearance was said to have been destroyed or recycled before it normally would have been. However, tapes of the impostor's appearance at the Consulate were preserved, ready to present to the new President Lyndon Johnson the day after Kennedy's murder as a pretext for silencing all investigations other than his "blue-ribbon panel" that would frame the patsy as the lone-nut assassin. It was a very intricate plan which clearly involved Lyndon Johnson, working with David Atlee Phillips and someone else who knew ahead of time when Oswald would appear at the Cuban Consulate in Mexico City.

    John Newman related in a PBS Frontline story, that J. Edgar Hoover said he could not "forget CIA withholding the French espionage activities in USA nor the false story re Oswald’s trip in Mexico City only to mention two of their instances of double dealing.” In the text and in footnote 17, following this quote from Hoover, Newman added:

    CIA headquarters made the decision soon after the assassination to deny that anyone within the CIA — including the Mexico station — knew of Oswald’s visits to the Cuban consulate until after JFK’s murder. But the Mexico City station’s chief, the head of Cuban operations, and the others involved with Cuban operations all maintain that they knew about the visits and informed headquarters at the time. They also maintain that there was an additional Oswald phone call not accounted for in the extant records.
    We know about a 30 September tape because of the recollection of the CIA translator who transcribed it, Mrs. Tarasoff. She remembers not only transcribing it but also the fact that the Oswald voice was the same as the 28 September voice—in other words the same Oswald impostor. Mrs. Tarasoff remembers the Oswald character asked the Soviets for money to help him defect, once again, to the Soviet Union. In addition, the CIA officer at the Mexico City in charge of Cuban operations, David Atlee Phillips, in sworn testimony to the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), backed up Mrs. Tarasoff’s claim about the tape and the request for money to assist in another defection to the Soviet Union. But the Phillips story has a twist. The day before his sworn testimony, Phillips told a different, more provocative version to Ron Kessler of the Washington Post. He told Kessler that on this tape Oswald asked for money in exchange for information. Why was this crucial transcript destroyed? We can only wonder at what motivated Phillips to tell two different stories about this piece in less than 24 hours.
    ...The operational reason for this deception has yet to fully come to light. 
    It seems likely, however, that the impostor was sent to the embassy to make it appear as though "Oswald" was acting with the Soviets, and thus to convince one or more persons that "the patsy" had to be killed after the eventual assassination and to supply a reason for what was to become the Warren Commission, as Newman further details. The motive for this impersonation is revealed by Rex Bradford of History Matters:
    An otherwise inexplicable impersonation episode takes on an entirely new meaning in this light. The calls from the Oswald impersonator made it appear that Oswald was a hired killer, hired by the Soviet Union no less. This was a prescription for World War III.
    John Newman brought up in his 1999 presentation at the JFK-Lancer Conference, what he had discovered about the impostor in Mexico City, stating:
    So, I tried to erect a hypothesis in my mind where it could be benign and it really didn't work. And where I have been for the last four years, as the Review Board has been releasing more and more stuff on this, is you really can't explain the impersonation outside of the plot to murder the president.
    An additional appendix to the HSCA Report on the JFK assassination, entitled "Oswald, the CIA, and Mexico City," actually called the "Lopez Report," was first partially released in 1996, but with fewer redactions again in 2003. Since 2003, other separate files have been come to light which furnish new information not dealt with by the HSCA staff in its report, according to History Matters:
    The LBJ taped phone conversations for instance, include startling corroboration for the claim that audio intercepts of an Oswald impersonator were listened to by FBI agents in Dallas while Oswald was in custody. Declassified testimony of David Phillips, the Tarasoff couple who translated the tapes for the CIA, and others illuminate some areas and deepen the mystery in others. [The Tarasoffs' 1976 interview with review date indicated as 11/14/96 appears in the Mary Ferrell website.]
    What Lee Oswald Told Judyth Baker

    Once the cancer weapon had been proven to work, Judyth left New Orleans, while Lee returned to Dallas to prepare for his trip to Mexico City, where he had the tough assignment of getting a visa into Cuba in order to deliver the weapon to someone who could use it to inject Fidel with cancer. Under the September  6, 1963 entry in the chapter of Me and Lee, entitled "Separation," Judyth wrote:
    He [Lee Oswald] arrived in Dallas around lunchtime and proceeded to a large prestigious building downtown, where he met two men. One was his handler, "Mr. B" who had accidentally told him his name was "Benton" when previously he'd said his name was "Benson." Disturbingly, how Lee heard this man addressed as "Bishop" by the anti-Castro Cuban who joined them. He now realized that only the letter "B" had been consistent in "Mr. B's" name. Lee had previously been informed that he'd meet not only his handler, but also the contact who would make sure the bioweapon got into Cuba, so he assumed the Latino was that man. No names were exchanged: it was an eyes-only encounter, and the meeting then abruptly ended.
    The above passage, relating what Lee told Judyth, must be compared with what Antonio Veciana has said about his meeting with his handler, known to him only as Maurice Bishop, first revealed to the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) in 1976, but he never identified Bishop as David Atlee Phillips until the AARC Conference in October 2014. Researchers have pondered for several decades about the real reason for Oswald's trip, including the contacts he made with diplomatic officials in Cuba's Communist government, as well as with the Soviet Embassy. The first face-to-face attempts between researchers and Cuban officials occurred in 1995 after some of the insiders had retired.

    What Antonio Veciana Told Other Researchers

    A. Veciana in 2014
    Former Cuban security agent, Arturo Rodriguez, had spoken to Antonio Veciana about his meeting with "Bishop" (David Atlee Phillips) in Dallas, when he saw his handler with the young North American man later identified as Lee Oswald, and later related to researchers his own curiosity about the reason for it. Rodriguez delivered a paper in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in August 1995 in which he set out his conclusions about why Phillips may have departed from customary tradecraft by scheduling two agents, unknown to each other, to appear together. Rodriguez concluded that Phillips' motive in arranging the early September meeting with Oswald, which Veciana walked in on, had initially been to frame Oswald as a member of an assassination plot with Cuba to kill Kennedy; then, after Oswald's arrest and murder, he surmised, Phillips' intent changed, and he attempted to show Oswald was a "lone nut," not acting on behalf of Cuba.

    The Rio conference at which Rodriguez and others spoke was eventually expanded into a one-on-one encounter between researchers and retired Cuban agents, held in Nassau, The Bahamas, in December 1995. The papers and transcripts of the taped discussions are all now part of the Cuban Information Archives. The discussions were taped and a transcript made. What follows is an excerpt from those archives, with punctuation corrected and emphasis added:
    [Dick Russell?]: Veciana told me when I interviewed him in 1976 about, and I'll just read you the quote, of exactly what he said. It is about, ah, his cousin, who is Luis [Ruiz?]. "Yes," it says, "I had a cousin, Guillermo Ruiz who worked with the Cuban intelligence service in Mexico City. After the assassination, sometime early in 1964, Bishop said to me that, I think by getting my cousin a considerable amount of money, would he say he talked to Oswald to make it appear Oswald was working for Castro? Because of this, I asked Bishop if it was true Oswald had been talking to Castro agents. Bishop said it did not matter if it was true; what was important was to get my cousin to make that statement."  So my question is: did you ever speak to, is this, do you know anything more about this? Did you ever speak to Guillermo Ruiz about this?

    Escalante: Yes, of course we have. We knew about this interview from this book about the investigation of the select committee [Gaeton Fonzi's The Investigation] and we had an interview with Guillermo Ruiz. In 1963, Guillermo Ruiz, in August 1963, he was appointed to commercial [attaché?] of the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City....
    We must interrupt at this point to relate what Bill Simpich says happened the day Oswald appeared in the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City. Simpich writes: "On September 27, an alleged phone tap revealed that Cuban consulate receptionist Silvia Duran had contacted Guillermo Ruiz at 10:54 am, complaining in Spanish that "he wants to speak to the consul"."
    He told me that when he arrived in Mexico a group of Cubans were waiting for him at the airport to welcome him, an act of repudiation, yes that's it. Guillermo Ruiz never worked for the Cuban intelligence. He was not an official of Cuba. He was not really a cousin to Veciana. Veciana's cousin was his wife. Guillermo Ruiz's wife. Guillermo Ruiz. So also is one of the persons who saw Oswald at the embassy, he will explain that when he gets to Oswald.
    [Dick Russell?]: Ruiz saw Oswald at the embassy?

    Escalante: Yes. There is one moment when he gets there and then you see Eusebio Azcue having a big discussion with Oswald in the last interview they have. He had an office on the top of the consulate and when Guillermo is about to pass through-- Guillermo spoke better English than Azcue--Azcue said please explain to this gentleman that I cannot give him a visa to go to Cuba if he doesn't have a visa from Moscow. So Guillermo looked at him, and he is one of the persons that confirmed that he saw Oswald in our Cuban consulate. This is what we know.

    When we read this story told by Veciana, it looks very strange to us. We, in our book, have a chapter, it is dedicated to the press campaign that was started before and after the Kennedy assassination to blame Cuba. However, there is a moment in December in 1963 after the Warren commission was appointed and this company started to go lower, and lower still because they were just not interviewed, I think. On the other hand, some other events which had happened in Cuba, didn't happen to us. It has always had very few meaning in 1964. Maurice Bishop gives this task to Veciana because this was out of the context of the moment, (?) the most important moment. We have some other theory about it. And we believe that the meeting Veciana speaks of in September of 1963 was for that ... was to try to recruit Guillermo Ruiz.

    [Dick Russell?]: He tried to recruit Ruiz?

    Escalante: (?) the meeting between Oswald, Veciana and Phillips in 63, September 63, was really to try to recruit Guillermo Ruiz

    [Dick Russell?]: How so? I don't really understand.

    Escalante: Let me explain. A few days before Kennedy's assassination, Guillermo Ruiz's wife walks from her house to the Cuban embassy. She was about 200 feet in from the entrance of the embassy, she looks at the...a big bunch of dollars on the sidewalk.

    [Dick Russell?]: A big bunch of what?

    Nunez: Dollars

    [Dick Russell?]: Dollars?

    Nunez: Dollars on the sidewalk.

    Escalante: And a Mexican person. She recalls that it was a Mexican person from the accent and tells her, "Lady, this money is yours." She gets scared because there are the two people coming to approach her, so she starts running for the embassy asking for help. When people from our embassy went to the same place, no money nor the people were there anymore. Obviously, this is not something normal. Imagine finding a big bunch of money in the middle of Mexico City. For us this had never had an explanation and I think that the only explanation that we can give is a form to try to recruit her.

    Lechuga: She was a cousin of Veciana. ...

    Smith: I don't understand how Phillips having Veciana in Dallas see him with Oswald has to do with the recruitment effort against Ruiz.

    Escalante: I'm going to say once more. Veciana told to Fonzi and Russell, that in January of 1964 his case officer, Maurice Bishop made a promise to recruit Guillermo Ruiz for him, to say that Oswald was a Cuban agent. That was out of context, out of moment, because in January 1964 the campaign against Cuba has lowered down, diminished. So we think that the true reason of the interview enter [between?] Veciana, Oswald and Maurice Bishop in Dallas, in September 1963 could have been that, or probably would have been that, and simply Veciana was given the information out of context, out of date to mix up everybody and to give only part of the truth, not the whole truth, not the same that happened in September, but in January 64. That is what we assumed even more logical that this (?) was in September and there was a plot to try to include Guillermo Ruiz. He doesn't have any sense would have wanted to put him in after murdering, but before...
    Fonzi: I would like to... we have a slight disagreement on you know why... Why Phillips ... General Escalante believes ... deliberately had Veciana see him with Oswald and I still tend to believe, as a result, the manner in which the information came up originally in the interview, that it was a mistake on Phillips' part. Now Phillips was not a man who did not make mistakes in his history. Joseph B. Smith, of the CIA, who wrote the book told me, I think he told Tony Summers also, that he recalled Phillips making two very bad mistakes in the course of his career. One was in Havana when he was caught in the house of prostitutes and called the American Embassy even though he was supposedly not connected to the agency. And another story that Smith tells is that at one point Phillips was supposed to have a meeting with a Russian in a restaurant and Phillips was asked to bring some bonapita, and he did, and then on leaving he left his briefcase on a chair. So the point is that Phillips, despite being a sophisticated spy, did make mistakes.

    The other factor I find difficult to find an answer to involves the basis of Veciana's talking to me in the first place. I did not tell Veciana when I first approached him that I was interested in the Kennedy assassination. At the time I was working for Senator Schweiker who was on the Senate Intelligence Committee and my approach to all the Cubans I interviewed at the time was that I was interested in the relationship between the CIA and anti-Castro Cuban groups. And it was on that basis that Veciana began talking with me. When I had originally gone to see Veciana and discovered Veciana, as a result of a suggestion by Paul Hoch out in California, who had written an article for the Saturday Evening Post I think, suggesting that it may have been Veciana who had visited (?)_____________, Hoch sent an advance copy, actually sent a manuscript of the article, and I was unaware that it had been published in the Post already. So, when I was trying to work the interview around to the Kennedy assassination, without being very blatant about it, I asked Veciana whether Alpha 66 had branches in other cities and then whether or not they happened to have one in Dallas and Veciana said... I said, then I asked him had he ever been to Dallas at that house and Veciana said "Yes, I have been there and now you are going to ask me whether I saw Oswald there." And I said, "Why would I ask you that?" He said "because I just read it in the Saturday Evening Post." I have it here in the bedroom. And he went to the bedroom and took it out. So the subject of Oswald came up in that manner, not by any direct question, and so I have trouble trying to figure out why Veciana would even bring up Oswald, why if he was involved in the assassination, why he would even link himself to the Kennedy assassination with me at all even though he told me everything about Bishop. He didn't have to tell me about the meeting with Oswald at all.

    Escalante: But let's take the facts. I said he was a hypocrite. Let's go back to the facts. The CIA--we are not going to identify any names--thought that Guillermo Ruiz was an official from the Cuban intelligence service. That is something that has been proved. Guillermo Ruiz was in the city of Mexico from August 1963. His wife is Veciana's cousin. They both are (?)__________. That is the second part. The third part. The information that Veciana gives you that he had had an interview with his case official in September 1963 in Dallas and that he saw there a man that looked like Oswald, that he later identified as Oswald. The fourth fact, is that Guillermo Ruiz's wife was a provocation to her [had been provoked?], a few days before Kennedy's assassination. The fifth point, Veciana tells that in January 1964 his case official in Mexico makes him a proposition to try to recruit Guillermo Ruiz for him to confirm that Oswald is a Cuban agent. These five facts obviously happened. All the information that we have available, is that these five things happened. The only thing I give you is that the order in which this timing in these facts, is not the one that Veciana says it was... No the way he said it was.

    ?[Dick Russell]: Possibly the way it was. I may be mistaken, because I haven't reviewed my notes on this but my recollection is that Veciana told me, that Bishop, shortly after the assassination made the proposal to him to contact Ruiz. Later he said there was a CIA agent who came to him and asked him to try and recruit Ruiz, and Veciana said he made an attempt to reach Ruiz in Spain. Was he in Spain at some point?...

    Escalante: And he made another proposition. He made a proposition to trade the hands of _________ for the liberation of one person in prison. It's a different operation and there's one sixth fact--when I talk about five that David Phillips--when he heard of the operation against Cuba in Mexico in 1962. There are a group of coincidences that make me think that the order of these facts, in this case, they do make a different final result and has been changed.

    ?[Dick Russell]: I have to change the emphasis slightly and I do so despite my great respect for the work done today _____, but what you just said is to me is the most important thing. That we know that Phillips was in charge of operations against Cuba in Mexico City, in the period when so much happened down there in respect to Oswald. There is the second thing we know about Phillips that is even bigger, more obvious, and that is that Phillips had been in charge of this information about the assassination since it happened and if there is a single key to this disinformation it is to blame the assassination on Cuba. And it seems to me that we should talk primarily about this, and only in this context, come back to the Veciana story. I would like to make two observations. One is that at the time that the Maurice Bishop story began, Phillips had caught the public eye and therefore Phillips in a sense had a reason to start creating disinformation about himself and his own role. Another point which I think is relevant, is that at a certain point and I (?) to know better than me, is that Veciana was shot through the head. It is important what year that was. It was in 1973. July 1973. I spoke to him myself by telephone, not long after this. And he said to me, I know who you are. I would be... it would be interesting to talk to you but consider this, I have just been shot through the head....
    Veciana told Dick Russell, author of The Man Who Knew Too Much (1992 publication), that Maurice Bishop (David Atlee Phillips) asked him, a month or so after the Kennedy assassination (or, late December 1963 or January 1964) to bribe a cousin working at the Mexico City Cuban Embassy, Guillermo Ruiz, to testify that Oswald was an agent working for Cuba. Then some time later, while Ruiz was assigned to Spain, Bishop/Phillips made contact with Veciana in order to reach Ruiz for a purpose unknown. We have to look at all these contacts within the context of history. What better context can be established, other than James Douglass' unparalleled book, JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters? Another good source is David Talbot's Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years.

    "Operation Mongoose ... Death Bed" -- November 5, 1962

    "The Project," on which Judyth Baker worked with Lee Oswald, David Ferrie and Dr. Mary Sherman, could not have been under Robert Kennedy's supervision, through his role in the Special Group Augmented's oversight of Operation Mongoose, since that operation, which began in November 1961, had died within weeks of October 16, 1962, when the Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved. The new Deputy Director of Plans, Richard Helms' special assistant, George B. McManus signed a Memorandum on November 5, 1962 stating that Mongoose had ended and that  Task Force W would begin dismantling. [Source: David E Kaiser, THE ROAD TO DALLAS, (2009, p. 145.)]

    Paragraph 9 of the McManus memo dealt with what to do about Edward Lansdale, who had first been in charge of Mongoose, clearly stating that Robert Kennedy, the "A.G.,""will drop Lansdale like a hot brick." The rest of the members of the former operation were advised to close ranks and deny access to Lansdale, except through the DCI to prevent his doing damage to the CIA; but they were advised not to attempt to "unseat" Lansdale. Thus, once Operation Mongoose officially ended in November 1962, Robert Kennedy would have ceased to have any interest in killing Castro.

    Who, then, was directing the spies and doctors at the Ochsner Clinic with whom Judyth was working?

    We will go back to unpublished research which I did several years ago about Dr. Ochsner in attempting to answer that question.

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    A Texan Born and Bred
    by Linda Minor

    Part One

    David Atlee Phillips, born in Fort Worth, Texas in 1922 to Edwin T. and Mary Young Phillips, hardly had a chance to know his father. Edwin's father, George Wilson Phillips, a Pennsylvanian, had married Blanche Murphy in 1874 in Iowa. Prior to 1898, the family had moved moved to Fort Worth from Marshall, Texas, where George was an engineer for Benjamin F. Yoakum's Frisco Railroad until his death in 1906. Blanche Phillips and her children, Henry Smith, James Olcott and Mattie Phillips were thereafter listed among communicants of St. Andrews Episcopal Parish in the heart of the Fort Worth business and courts district.

    The Phillipses were Episcopalian.
    Edwin, the youngest of four boys and one girl, was 16 when his father died. His older brothers were all employed as railroad clerks, and the family rented out rooms to boarders in their large house, located at 501 Louisiana Ave. in downtown Fort Worth, for extra income. Though still standing when George Phillips' funeral procession began  from that location in 1906, the house was demolished when the highway (now IH-35W) was built.

    With help from his older siblings, Edwin managed to attend the University of Texas and obtain a legal education. It was in Austin that he met fellow student, Mary Louise Young; he graduated in 1908, and Mary in 1909.They married in 1912 and moved to Fort Worth. By 1920 Mary had already given birth to three sons, ranging in age from two to six years old. David would come along like an afterthought, two years later. Edwin had by then become a "corporation attorney," and was a partner at Phillips, Trammell and Chizum. The law firm specialized in oil and gas cases, taking some of them on appeal to the Texas Supreme Court. The firm also worked closely with Fort Worth's oldest and most respected law firm--Capps, Cantey & Hanger. 

    The marriage would last only sixteen years, cut short by Edwin's untimely death in 1928. Edwin's law practice, in which he represented wealth oil interests, however, would give his widow, Mary Young Phillips, the springboard of contacts she needed, when added to those from her own background, to find a career that helped support her family.

    Charles Glidden Young

    1870 Census of Young family in Rusk
    Mary's father, James Mills Young, had been born in 1873 in Chappell Hill, Texas, during the midst of the civil war, though his own father was not a native Texan. Charles Glidden Young began life in New Hampshire in 1816, then gravitated to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he met and married Henrietta M. Chamberlain in 1842. The 1870 census shows Charles G. Young living in Rusk, Cherokee County, Texas, giving his occupation as "minister of the gospel."

    We know that Charles had arrived in Texas by way of Mississippi and Louisiana, just as the civil war was beginning. The Vicksburg, Shreveport and Texas Railroad (VS&T), which he was constructing, reached the Texas state line in 1861.

    Six years earlier (1855) Charles G. Young had been elected by the board of directors of the VS&T as its president, working with the railroad's engineer, William G. Bonner. The two had been instructed by the Board to approach the Texas Legislature to ask for a route through Texas, with a long-range plan of ultimately linking up with the Southern Pacific line. Ultimately, if achieved, it would have given The VS&T a connection to the Pacific Coast. 

    Charles may have moved his family at that time to Chappell Hill, Texas. Located in Washington County, near the site where Texas independence had been born in 1836, the Washington County Railroad before long negotiated a merger with the railroad being built out of Houston by William Marsh Rice--the Houston & Texas Central. 

    Before the VS&T's dream of linking to the Southern Pacific could materialize, however, its roadbed and rails were seized in December 1861 by the Confederacy, which took them over for its supply line. Thereafter, as reported on January 21, 1863, by the Dallas Herald, Union forces had not only destroyed the road, but had also:
    captured and destroyed or carried away a large quantity of Confederate property. They also burnt three of the most important bridges on the route, viz: at bayou Macon, Tensas, and lake One. They also burnt the depot at Delhi and materially injured the railroad track. The bridges, we are informed, cannot be rebuilt under years of hard labor. We presume we are once more cut off from all communication with the country east of the Mississippi river, save that which may be carried on by the "runners of the blockade."
    Despite all the disruption of his railroad-building plans by both sides in the War Between the States, Charles G. Young did not give up. When in November 1861, Young was "relieved" by the superintendent of the VS&T railroad, and he took the opportunity to relocate his family to Texas--first settling it appears in Washington County, where James Mills Young, his youngest son was born. He  built a smelter and operated a sawmill, brickyard, and storeat Rusk in Cherokee County, selling goods brought by a wagon train with supplies from Galveston and Matamoros, Mexico. The smelter and sawmill were a necessary part of the Houston & Great Northern Railroad, which he chartered in 1866 in the hope that, with the war now concluded, there would be no further violence. The maternal grandfather of David Atlee Phillips, James M. Young, was listed as a lad of seven in the Young residence at Rusk in the 1870 census. However, he had been born in Washington County, Texas, not far from today's Brenham, where older siblings married and remained when their father took the younger brood to Rusk.

    For example, Daniel Marshall Young, born in Mississippi in 1840, married a girl named Marie from Virginia, and their first child was born only a year after his young brother James. Daniel worked as a farm laborer in Chappell Hill to support his young family. The eldest daughter, Catherine (called Callie), had studied music and married a lawyer named I. M. Onins who became a judge in what was at that time the 28th Judicial District of Texas. They had a daughter named Posey. The Texas Legislature granted Onions a three-month leave in April 1873 to leave Texas until July 1873.

    We will resume at this point with Part Two.

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    Continued from Part I

    A Texan Born and Bred
    by Linda Minor
    Part Two
    E.M. House residence in Austin, Texas
    The mother of David Atlee Phillips was born as Mary Louise Young, the eldest of James and Gussie Young's three daughters living in 1910 in Austin near the corner of Rio Grande and West 13th Street, a few steps west of the Texas Capitol Building site. James listed his occupation as "commercial traveler, oil company," while his father-in-law, Tandy Ayres, who lived with them, was in hardware sales. We will reserve the Ayres ancestry for a subsequent post.

    Thirteenth Street terminated only a few blocks to the west into what is now Austin Community College. If one were facing that school, looking behind it to the right, situated on a slight rise near Shoal Creek, the Victorian mansion of Edward Mandell House would have loomed into view. House had created four Texas governors, beginning with James S. Hogg in 1892, followed by Culberson, Sayers and Lanham. After Lanham's election in 1892, House had begun to look beyond Texas--to the federal government in Washington, D.C. By 1912, using his advanced knowledge of political strategy, he had "created" President Woodrow Wilson.

    David's father, Edwin Phillips was fated to die only 16 years into his marriage to Mary, and his death came in 1928, when young David was just a boy of five. At first they were far from being poor, however, as the spy, David Atlee Phillips joked in The Night Watch: 25 Years of Peculiar Service, (page 4):
    "My father died when I was five, leaving my mother, three older brothers, and a portfolio of oil stocks which turned to ashes in the market crash of 1929. We were the poorest rich people in Fort Worth. A founder of a local country club, my father left us a life membership and the deed to a house on the fourth green."
    We will return later to explore Edwin's legal contacts and social ones in that country club in Fort Worth. First, however, we will explore the ancestry of Mary's parents--both sides of which were steeped in Texas history. Some of their associates were men and women who built the Republic of Texas prior to statehood within the Union, and who also observed Texas during the years of Confederacy and Reconstruction.

    The Career of Mary Young Phillips

    David's mom on FDR's Committee.
    Edwin Phillips' widow felt the need to work, and the career she chose is set out in her obituary in the March 12, 1948, Denton Record-Chronicle:
    Funeral services for Mrs. Edwin T. Phillips, secretary of the Texas State College for Women Board of Regents, who died at her home in Fort Worth Wednesday after a long illness, will be held Friday at 3 p.m. St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in Fort Worth. The Rev. Louis F. Martin will conduct the services and burial will be in Greenwood Cemetery in Fort Worth. Mrs. Phillips, 57, was appointed to the Board of Regents in 1941 by Gov. W. Lee O'Daniel and was reappointed in 1947 by Gov. Coke Stevenson [the man Lyndon Johnson defeated in the special election to the U.S. Senate in 1948 by only 87 stolen votes].
    Mrs. Phillips Aids Needy for FDR
    Manager of the civic affairs department of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce and prominent in business, civic, education and social circles in Fort Worth for 20 years. Mrs. Phillips left her active duties more than a year ago when she became ill. She had been in New York most of the year receiving medical treatment, but was brought home ten days ago when it became evident that she could not live.
    David's grandmother, Gussie
    Mrs. Phillips was the widow of Edwin T. Phillips, Fort Worth attorney. Survivors are four sons, Edwin T. Phillips, Jr., Jim Phillips, J. Olcott Phillips and David Phillips; her mother, Mrs. Augusta Ayers Young, and three grandsons, all of Fort Worth; and one sister, Mrs. Robert Taylor of Norfolk, Va.

    Mrs. Phillips, the former Mary Louise Young from San Antonio, was a daughter of Augusta Ayres (Ayers) Young, widowed at a young age when her own husband, James Mills Young, died. James, as mentioned in Part I, was the youngest son of Charles Glidden Young, but little is known of him. Nevertheless, four years before her husband's death, Mrs. (James M.) Gussie Young, was making society page headlines in San Antonio's newspapers as chairman of the Christmas Cheer campaign, working with other socialites involved in the local charity. We will examine her own background that prepared her for this role in a future blog entry.

     How much about her father-in-law's career Mary knew is impossible to say. Although she grew up in San Antonio, her parents, James and Gussie Young, were living in Austin, the state capital, when Mary was a student at the University of Texas. There she met her future husband, Edwin Phillips, and, after he finished law school there, they married in 1912 and moved back to his hometown, Fort Worth, where he began the practice of law. Mary's father, James Mills Young, died in 1917, and her grandfather, Nathan Tandy Ayres passed two years later. Her daughter , leaving Mary's mother little else to do except move to Fort Worth.

    Back to Mary's Grandfather

    Dr. C.G. Young and wife, H.M.L. Young, in 1850
    Continuing with where we left off in Part I, we find that in 1850 Charles G. Young was a 33-year-old practicing physician in Caddo Parish, Louisiana--living in the town of Greenwood between Shreveport and the Texas state line. His wife was only 22 but had already given birth to three children, ages six, four and two months. We are not quite sure when he gave up the practice of medicine to start building a railroad or how he avoided military service when the South seceded. Medical doctors would have been in great demand as the casualties of war piled up.

    A short biography of him is recorded in the Handbook of Texas Online:

    YOUNG, CHARLES G. (1816-1871). Charles G. Young, businessman and railroad promoter, was born in New Hampshire on April 7, 1816. He graduated from Philadelphia College and in 1838 moved to Louisiana, where in the 1850s he was president of the Vicksburg and Shreveport Railroad Company. About 1861 he moved his family and slaves to Texas. In 1863 he organized a smelter in Cherokee County, employing seventy-five white men and several hundred blacks. In addition to the foundry, Young operated a sawmill, brickyard, and store, which he supplied by wagon-train from Galveston and Matamoros. The business failed some time after the end of the Civil War, following a boiler accident and a jayhawker raid on the store. Young's Cherokee Furnace Company was taken over in 1867 by stockholder T. L. Philleo. 
    Besieged by Jayhawkers
    Young helped charter the Houston and Great Northern Railroad Company in 1866 and on June 1, 1867, became president of the company. He was killed in an accident near Houston on August 9, 1871. Young's reminiscences of early railroad history were published by W. S. Adair in the Dallas Morning Newson December 7, 1924. [Sources: Vera Lea Dugas, "Texas Industry, 1860-1880,"Southwestern Historical Quarterly 59 (October 1955). Houston Daily Telegraph, August 24, 1871. S. G. Reed, A History of the Texas Railroads (Houston: St. Clair, 1941; rpt., New York: Arno, 1981)]

    A website about Confederate railroads reveals that the Vicksburg road, which was chartered in 1853, by 1861 was operating 75 miles from Vicksburg to Monroe, Louisiana and had soon built another five miles toward Marshall, Texas (in the same county where, a few years later, Lady Bird (Taylor) Johnson's father would be a merchant). The csa-railroads website indicates that the "Confederate army seized the road because of the Union sympathies of its directors," and that the line was "heavily used in their supply until Union operations caused serviceable rolling stock and other machinery to be dismantled and hauled to Shreveport in August 1863. Eventually, the entire line east of Monroe was destroyed, with usable iron rails being removed to support other Union railroads."

    Young's boss in the VS&T seems to have been another man from New Hampshire, Colonel William Morrill Wadley, president of the Georgia Central railroad and general manager of the VS&T. Possibly he was a friend of Young's father, who also lived in Georgia at the time he died in 1867. (See Robert C. Black III, The Railroads of the Confederacy, page 108, for more on Wadley.) Only a few months after his railroad was seized by the Confederacy, Young was fired, while Wadley received a commission as a colonel in the Confederate army.

    Chappell Hill Manufacturing Company incorporated 1863.
    Young moved on to Texas, but seemingly never fought for either side. Instead, he seems to have hovered between the Texas counties of Washington and Cherokee.
    James Mills Young was born in Washington County 24 MAY 1864 in Chappell Hill, Texas, according to one genealogist. The previous year the Texas Legislature (in Special Law XXXVII) had approved the incorporation of  a manufacturing business in that location, in which Charles Young was a principal with several others, and its stated purpose was the manufacture of woolen and cotton cloth, cotton seed oil, and iron. Young's associates in Chappell Hill Manufacturing included:
    • Col. William W. Browning, a farmer, who had lived in Chappell Hill at least ten years by that time
    • Bryant L. Peel, who seems to have been a Methodist minister and agent for Chappell Hill Female College;
    • James F. Dumble was a cotton factor and broker in Galveston in business with Peel's family; 
    • Gabriel Felder owned a cotton plantation in Washington County, acquired after he relocated from South Carolina in about 1852; he was a trustee of Soule University, the predecessor of Chappell Hill Female College
    • Alexander McGowen, a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto, had settled in Washington County, where the Texas declaration of independence had been signed in 1836, then called Washington-on-the-Brazos, the first capital of Texas. He was a trustee affiliated with the Methodist circuit of ministers that included Chappell Hill, as well as Houston and La Grange and as such was an associate of Charles Shearn and  Thomas W. House. Dumble was also involved with the Methodist mission board, as was Nathan Tandy Ayres, Gussie Young's father, who was named as head of the Shearn Church Sunday School in 1884.
    It seems likely, given the fact that many of these men were church members in the Shearn Church in Houston, named for E.M. House's mother's father, and the fact that the House and Shearn men were involved with the Masonic Lodge, that most of them were probably lodge brothers, intimate friends of the House family. Undoubtedly, Young came in contact with them in furtherance of his desire to finance the future railroad enterprise. One forum comprised of civil war buffs posted a list of companiescontracting with the Texas Confederacy during the war, compiled in a book called Texas in the Confederacy, with the implication that the Chappell Hill Manufacturing company was organized in order to contract with the Confederate government.

    C.G. Young's High Powered Associates

    Daniel Young, father of C.G.
    We can glean something of the personality and character of Charles Young from the circumstances he faced and the way he carried on in spite of them. Much of his life, however, is like a jigsaw puzzle that must be put together, piece by piece. Although he was born in New Hampshire in 1816, his father, Daniel Young, moved to Scioto County, Ohio in 1820, where Charles grew up. Daniel, with his father-in-law (Glidden) and others, manufactured iron in a company called Franklin Furnace. [Source: Frank H. Rowe, History of the iron and steel industry in Scioto County, Ohio (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1938).] 

    According to this history, Daniel Young was an associate of Methodist minister Martin Ruter, who was head of the Texas Mission to the Republic of Texas in 1836. Daniel was even an ordained minister himself and most likely kept up with his friends in Texas throughout the years before his death in Georgia in 1867, Ruter collected supplies for his mission in Indiana, and then traveled to Texas with an associate, David Ayres. He would have known that Ruter had met Sam Houston and M.B. Lamar, both presidents during the Republic years, and that he had been successful in getting the Republic to charter a college in Chappell Hill in Washington County, where he died in 1838.

    Starting out near Shreveport, La. as a doctor, Charles Young began raising a family with his much younger Ohio-born wife. After many years as a medical doctor, perhaps he was lured away from a medical career by the promise of more lucrative business profits. It would be through his second career, as a railroad builder, that he established a name for himself. Then the civil war intervened. At that point, he may have learnedthatRutersville College in Fayette County, Texas, named for his father's friend--had been succeeded in 1856 by another Methodist college in Washington County, known as Soule University, which in 1865 decided to open a medical school. Charles Young applied to teach there.

    The president of the Houston and Great Northern Railroad died on August 10, 1871 when his train overturned as a result of a "malicious act" which obstructed the track, according to newspaper accounts. Only eight months earlier, however, Young was announced as president of a newly financed railroad, whose associates included some of Houston's wealthiest businessmen in association with others from New York and New Jersey. According to Earle B. Young in his book, Tracks to the Sea: Galveston and Western Railroad Development, 1866-1900, Dr. Young was "president of the Chappell Hill Manufacturing Company and general superintendent of the company's ironworks near Rusk."

    The 1870 directors of the reorganized H&GR, each of whom represented a bloc of shareholders, were:
    • Moses W. Taylor - builder of the Morris and Essex Railroad at the same time, whose president was Samuel Sloan, and vice president was Percy R. Pyne, Taylor's son-in-law. Taylor had been a dealer in pickles in Tarrytown, New York, when he met Charles Stillman, recently arrived from Brownsville, Texas, where he had acquired a veritable fortune in running ammunition to both sides of two wars from an outpost in Matamoros (working there alongside the likes of Richard King, Mifflin Kenedy, and William Marsh Rice), Mexico. Stillman's son James then learned about private banking from Taylor and ultimately succeeded Percy Pyne as head of the National City Bank in New York City. Taylor, through his railroads in and around Central New Jersey, helped to build the town of Dunellen, where William Marsh Rice acquired a large estate before his murder in 1900.
    • Wm. E. Dodge - head of Phelps, Dodge & Company.
    • John S. Barnes - He acted as agent for Robert Lenox Kennedy, president of the National Bank of Commerce of New York, whose father-in-law was a large stockholder in the Central New Jersey Railroadin the 1870s. Barnes also partnered with Scotsman, James Stewart Kennedy who arrived in America in 1856. J.S. Kennedy created the Scottish American Investment Trust (SAIT) and his partners included "...John S. Barnes, and finally John Kennedy Tod, [who] served successively as secretaries of the [SAIT] Board, which two further 'Kennedy men' joined in 1875. One, James Alfred Roosevelt [uncle of Teddy], a senior partner in the private banking firm of Roosevelt & Son, symbolized New York's wealthy old Dutch elite. The other, Robert Lenox Kennedy, was of Scots ancestry though unrelated to John S. Kennedy, and was a private banker and president of the city's National Bank of Commerce; this institution succeeded the failed Duncan, Sherman firm as Scottish American's bank in the United States. J. Kennedy Tod & Co., the successor to J. S. Kennedy & Co. in 1883, continued as Scottish American's agent until 1902." (Quoted in The Man Who Found the Money).
    • Wm. Walter Phelps - He became interested in Texas railroads in 1870, shortly after he came into an inheritance on the death of his father. The railroad was eventually to become the International & Great Northern, which was alleged to have fraudulently enticed the Texas Legislature to pass laws aiding the railroad in violation of the Texas Constitution. Placed into receivership, the I&GN would eventually become part of Jay Gould's system between St. Louis and Mexico City. Exchanging his debtor bonds in the various components of the railroad, Phelps thus became a huge owner of real estate in Texas through the New York and Texas Land Company set up in 1880.
    • Wm. Marsh Rice - Massachusetts man who settled in Houston, Texas, and founded the Houston & Central Texas Railroad, which merged with Charles Phillips' Houston & Great Northern in 1870. Rice lived partly in Houston and partly in New York City, but before his death moved to Dunellen, N.J. His 1900 murder was pinned on a man named Albert Patrick, who, coincidentally, lived in the same Austin, Texas neighborhood at about the same time the James Mills Young family lived there.
    • W. J. Hutchins - president of the H&TC Railroad in 1867 before the merger with Young's H&GN three years later.
    • C. G. Young - maternal great grandfather of David Atlee Phillips.
    • Cornelius Ennis - along with the father of Col. E.M. House, Ennis was a director of the H&TC in 1867.
    • T. F. White -a businessman from Galveston.
    Vice President of the railroad was Congressman W. Walter Phelps, an 1860 graduate of Yale, where he had been chosen as a member of Skull and Bones. Phelps' father had founded and served as the first president of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. His father-in-law, Joseph Earl Sheffield, came from a seafaring family in Connecticut, but worked as a cotton broker and railroad financier, and donated the funds to found Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. William Earl Dodge's son, Rev. David Stuart Dodge, married the sister of W. W. Phelps. After William Dodge marriedMelissa Phelps, daughter of Anson Green Phelps, the two men created Phelps,Dodge & Co., a metal works and mining company in 1834. W.E. Dodge was a director of the Houston & Texas Central Railroad, set up by William M. Marsh of Houston, since at least 1868. 

    As mentioned previously, Young had been relieved of his duties at the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Texas Railroad in 1861 as a result of its destruction by Union forces following its seizure and use by the Confederacy. Relocating to Texas, Young most likely sought out men of political and financial influence who could finance a new project of rail-building betweenHarrison County, where he had ended the VS&T, through Rusk in Cherokee County, thence in a southerly or southwestern direction to link up with rails reaching up to his area by merchants seeking a national market for goods grown or produced around Houston and Galveston.On that route was Chappell Hill, where its citizens had been clamoring for rail service since 1852. It was a good place to start preparations for a project that would have to await war's end. 

    By merging with the Houston & Texas Central Railroad, he achieved his goal of acquiring financing. This railroad, although building along a route that is now the location of U.S. Highway 290 between Houston and Austin, the shareholders were also amenable to combining with other businessmen in Washington County at Chappell Hill and Brenham, who wanted to connect to a point farther to the east at Rusk, a route which somewhat paralleled another railroad then being planned.

    [Side Note: Much of the money that would go into the railroad came from a Texas family about whom much has already been written at a sister blog, WHERE THE GOLD IS. James Stillman, who had run blockades during the Mexican and Civil Wars, accumulating enough capital to form the National City Bank in New York City, while being mentored by banker Moses Taylor. Jacob S. Wetmore hailed from Englewood, New Jersey. Teaneck, N. J., where William Walter Phelps lived, was less than 40 miles northeast of Dunellen, N.J., where W. M. Rice made his home for many years after leaving Houston.] 

    Dr. Charles G. met his death on August 9, 1871, fifteen miles north of Houston. He had two flat cars placed behind the steam locomotive, which was chugging up the track toward its terminus when it crashed into an obstruction. Newspapers declared whatever the obstruction was, it had been placed by "malicious persons." Before the following month was out, not only had the perpetrator been arrested, but tried and convicted as well. That's quick justice, even though Flake's Bulletin indicated some reluctance to accept that it was totally accurate. But then, that's Texas justice for you!

    To be continued in Part III.

    Warnning: Do NOT Get Caught While Searching!!
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    0 0

    Below is what I wrote to share at the JFK Assassination Conference. Unfortunately, I got sidetracked and only skimmed the surface. I appreciate all the gracious comments I received. For those who wanted me to go more in depth, here is what I failed to say:

    The Big Picture 
    by Linda Minor

    Prefatory Remarks

    I am honored today to be asked to lead off this conference, the second one inspired by the dream of Judyth Baker to exonerate a man she met in New Orleans in 1963—Lee Harvey Oswald.

    This weekend you will hear many presentations about the shooting in Dallas, which occurred 30 minutes after high noon 51 years ago today. Each speaker will zero in on that event from his or her unique perspective. We come from a variety of backgrounds, levels of education and expertise. We certainly do not agree on what is the most significant detail about the murders of the three men killed on the weekend before Thanksgiving in 1963.

    Three unsolved murders
    John F. Kennedy, the elected President of the United States, J. D. Tippit, a Dallas police officer, and Lee H. Oswald, a veteran of the U.S. Marine Corps--these three murders constitute, without question, the biggest unsolved conspiracy of our lifetime. Can it ever be solved? Does it really matter now, all these years later?

    My own research into the assassination conspiracy began, like many others, after I saw Oliver Stone’s movie, "JFK," shortly after its release. At that time I lived in Houston, Texas, and was working as an assistant county attorney, assigned to help in an investigation involving bribery allegations against the county judge, Jon Lindsay, who had served as campaign chairman in Houston a few years earlier on the first George Bush’s campaign for President. My work on this case and my interest in the assassination of 1963 began to dovetail as I learned more about Houston's history, and the wealth that created that city.

    My research became centered around what was called the “Suite 8-F Crowd”—numerous men and one woman who could frequently be found hanging out on the 8th floor of the Lamar Hotel in the days before Lyndon Johnson instantly rose to the Presidency as the result of an act of extreme violence. Using the Torbitt Document, subtitled “The Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal,” as my guide, I focused first on the oil men listed in that document who lived in Houston and later spread my research to their Houston associates. Eventually my work broadened to include other sections of the state and country.

    It is now some twenty years later. What have I learned that I feel I would most like to pass on to this crowd?

    I will answer this question by asking you to picture a scene from a second movie which had a tremendous impact on my life, All the President’s Men. We are in a dark parking garage. Robert Redford whispers to Hal Holbrook that he has reached a dead end in his effort to obtain evidence about who planned the break-in at the Watergate office of the Democratic National Committee. He does know that Kenneth Dahlberg had given a $25,000 cashier’s check to the Committee to Reelect the President, known by its acronym, CREEP; after a few twists and turns, that same check had shown up as a deposit in the bank account of one of the burglars, Bernard L. Barker. Woodward turned to Deep Throat for a new lead.

    Hal Holbrook inhales on his cigarette and leans toward Redford. A raspy whisper escapes his mouth, along with the smoke: “Follow the money!” That’s all. Just follow the money.

    That one sentence describes what I’ve learned in the last twenty years. It’s about money. Why was John F. Kennedy killed? Who authorized the assassination? Follow the money.

    Follow the Money

    Money is what the Cold War was really all about. American capitalists wanted to maintain control of an empire they had been in the process of creating since WWI--more accurately perhaps, since the Mexican War in 1845.After the 1776 revolution, those in power had learned that nation-building needed wealth, and they had made secret special immunities to privateers, willing to engage in foreign intrigue, free of fear of prosecution. It is a sordid part of our history never really revealed.

    The biggest profits, it seems, are made from activities that most of us would shun: Pushing narcotics on unwilling users and furnishing victims for perverted minds are two examples. Significant profits also can be made from war, and profiteers from revolutionary days and throughout the 19th century had been accumulating a vault of knowledge about how to create wars, disguise the proceeds therefrom, and gain power and prestige in the process. That valuable vault had to be locked away from the prying eyes of outsiders by ensuring its secrecy through "secret societies" set up within universities controlled through elite trustees. It had taken 150 years from the time colonists began arriving in America before a generation born on American soil was ready to fight a war against British control. The newly independent nation, unfortunately, was unable to separate itself from the institutional control which had been put in place during colonial days. Harvard and Yale, for example were established under trustees who had a contractual loyalty to the empire the founders of the United State had fought against. (The legal rule was decided in Dartmouth College v. Woodwardin 1819.)

    Not long after that Supreme Court case, secret societies began appearing on university campuses, within whose vaults is buried a very closely guarded secret:
    How to obtain profits from any corrupt source and turn criminal donors into beneficent philanthropists.

    With tainted gold and unholy wealth those conspirators created a system based on capital at the expense of principle. Those early-day institutions, and others formed under their aegis, still control the American empire. The history of why and how our country departed from its noble undertaking as a republic and descended or ascended, depending upon one's perception, into the realm of empire, has been written about at my blog called Where the Gold Is. There is no time to talk about that today, but for those interested in how the oligarchy we live in developed, I would refer you to that blog.

    Ruth Hyde Paine's Ancestry

    Siblings of W.F. Hyde
    When I chose the topic of Ruth Hyde Paine, all I really knew about her actually pertained to the ancestry of her husband Michael Ralph Paine. About Ruth's own family, I knew little. In preparation for this presentation I spent a couple of weeks researching her genealogy and learned that, even though she had grown up in Columbus, Ohio, and had met Michael Paine in Philadelphia, where she was teaching Phys. Ed. and folk-dancing at Germantown Friends' School, there were two generations of Hydes before her who grew up in California. Her great-grandfather, William Penn Hyde, relocated from New England to Santa Clara in 1881. A Methodist minister, he had moved from Connecticut to Massachusetts and then to Rhode Island until 1881, when, claiming bad health, he relocated his branch of the Hyde family.

    William Penn Hyde's son, William Fletcher Hyde, Ruth’s grandfather, was already college-age when he arrived in Santa Clara, California, and enrolled in University of the Pacific, which had been originally named California Wesleyan College in 1851. It was chartered by the Methodist Episcopal Church two years after gold was discovered in California. The college went through a couple of name changes before the trustees agreed in 1921 to move the campus to Stockton, California, although the medical school it created merged with Stanford.

    William Fletcher (better known as W.F.) Hyde managed the bookstore at the Santa Clara campus until shortly after Leland Stanford, Jr. University opened its doors in 1891. He then moved to the new town of Palo Alto and became manager of Stanford's first bookstore. During his life he became well acquainted with both the President of Stanford, David Starr Jordan, and with most of the professors who taught there.

    As a matter of fact, Martha Constance Smith, who had been attracted to Stanford to work on her Ph.D., became an instructor at Stanford even before she and W.F. married and began rearing children. Martha’s grandfather, strangely enough, had co-founded the university where William Penn Hyde, her husband’s father, had received his education. So it seems, Ruth Hyde's eventual decision to become a Quaker in or before 1948 has never been fully explained.

    W.F. Hyde became heavily involved as a great believer in progressive reform in Palo Alto's municipal politics during the years that Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican, was president. W.F.'s younger brother, James McDonald Hyde (see list of Hyde siblings above) studied geology and metallurgy at Stanford in the same class with Herbert Hoover’s brother, Theodore Jesse (Tad) Hoover. While W.F. helped to reform politics in Palo Alto, his brother James worked for the Hoovers in various mining concerns throughout the world and in 1913 became associate professor in the geology department at Stanford, with Tad Hoover as its head. This Hyde family member, Ruth's great-uncle, became quite liberal in his later years, moving to Hollywood and serving on the city council. He died in 1943.

    Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, had been elected with the help of Roosevelt's "progressives," and was inaugurated in 1913. Herbert Hoover, a Republican in that progressive mold, was called to Washington, D.C. to work for Wilson's administration. He was appointed to the War Trade Council as food administrator and also served on the Supreme Economic Council in Paris during the time Colonel House, Robert Lansing and the Dulles brothers were there negotiating the peace treaty after WWI. Hoover later served as Secretary of Commerce for two Republican administrations that followed Woodrow Wilson, and then became President himself in 1928.

    As U.S. President, Hoover was likely to call on Stanford graduates to fill many of the positions available in his new government.

    By the time Hoover took the oath of office in 1929, Ruth’s own father, William Avery Hyde, had graduated from Stanford with a degree in chemical engineering. He met a female student who also had the last name of Hyde—Carol Elizabeth Hyde. They even shared a common ancestor back in New London, Connecticut, several generations removed. Carol’s father, Charles Ludlow Hyde, had been ordained as a Congregationalist minister at Oberlin College when he was 35, taking up a pastorate in Colorado for several years before relocating to Fremont County, California. While Carol's parents were at Oberlin, another member of the Hyde family, from yet a different branch (law student, Arthur Mastick Hyde, son of Ira B. Hyde of Missouri), was also there. He would be chosen as Herbert Hoover's Secretary of Agriculture in 1928. He was such a dark horse candidate for the job, he almost declined in shock. That is just one more strange coincidence in Hyde family genealogy.

    Another curiosity from Hyde-lore is a newspaper article from 1916, which mentioned that Carol Hyde's father sought employment through a San Francisco staffing agency to work at, of all things, a poultry cooperative! Once hired, he then moved to Menlo Park near Palo Alto just in time for his daughter Carol to enroll at Stanford and study music. She graduated in 1924, a year behind William. Another news item revealed the name of the Congregationalist Church, where Carol and her father sang in the same choir with W.F. Hyde, Ruth's grandfather!

    Forbes and Hyde - with a Dash of Jekyll?

    Carol no doubt imparted a love of madrigal singing and folk dancing to her second daughter, Ruth, who would be born in New York City in 1932. Carol and William, who married in 1926, ostensibly moved to the Big Apple for him to work as a chemist at Bell Telephone Laboratories, whose largest shareholders, from earliest days, members of the Forbes family. In fact, after Alexander Graham Bell had patented the device called the telephone, he sought advice from bankers and businessmen about how to create a network of telephone users in order to make money off the invention, which had no marketable value unless someone with a great deal of money to invest would build the infrastructure and buy the equipment to connect telephones all over the country.

    As it turns out, the man who had the vision of how such a network of telephones could be established happened to be William Hathaway Forbes, who was mentioned in Harper's Weekly in 1914. See clipping to the left. In 1921 Harper's Monthly included an essay written by biographer Albert Bigelow Paine, detailing how the telephone companies had been consolidated into one corporation. It also reveals that American Telephone & Telegraph had worked secretly with the Naval intelligence during WWI to develop wireless communication.

    Whose Money Was It?
    William Hathaway Forbes' father, John Murray Forbes, was the same man who returned from China and consolidated the Chicago, Quincy and Burlington Railroad with opium profits. William Hathaway Forbes was grandfather to Ruth Forbes Paine, Michael Paine's mother. Michael Paine was, of course,  the man Ruth Avery Hyde would just happen to meet thirty years after her father went to work for the telephone research laboratory financed by William Hathaway Forbes. Small world!

    Stanford Grads Do Columbia

    As it turns out, New York City had attracted other graduates of Stanford in 1926. In fact three students Carol had known in the Cosmopolitan Club made their way to Columbia’s graduate school that year. We found their photographs in the 1924 Stanford yearbook, where the four were members of the Cosmopolitan Club:
    1. Carol Hyde, who studied music; 
    2. Talbot Bielefeldt, who majored in political science; 
    3. Paul W. Orr, who had studied biology; and his future wife, 
    4. Violet Balcomb, whose interest was education.
    They would all come together in 1930 in New York City, as we shall see. Carol already had two children by 1930. Paul Orr and Violet Balcomb also married in 1926 and both attended Columbia until 1928, at which point, almost by accident, they happened to meet some students and faculty members returning from the Soviet Union ten years after the Bolsheviks had taken over but before Stalin showed his true colors.

    William Avery Hyde's Family

    Although Ruth Paine's father, William A. Hyde, worked as a chemist for Bell Labs for at least four years, he never mentioned that fact to the FBI or the Warren Commission when questioned subsequent to the assassination about his background and his knowledge of his daughter's connection to the Oswalds.

     A.J. Weberman once posted on a now-defunct website (with no citation) quoted Hyde as follows:
    From 1930 to 1942 I worked for, and with, various New York metropolitan area consumer cooperatives. They were subject to attempts at communist infiltration almost continuously. Both Mrs. Hyde and I took our part in trying to block this. From 1939 to 1941 I was the District Sales Manager of Greater New York for the Farm Bureau Insurance Companies of Ohio (now Nationwide). No one could get an agent's contract from the companies in my district except through me.
    As mentioned earlier, Carol Hyde's father had specifically sought employment in California at a poultry cooperative in about 1920; possibly he helped to steer his son-in-law William into
    selling insurance at the Farm Bureau Cooperative agency in 1930. In those years following the Communist Revolution in Russia, however, cooperative had become highly suspect of being subversive to the capitalistic lifestyle. Were William, Carol and their friends really advocates of a socialistic, if not communistic, system? More research needs to be done to determine what he was really doing. Documents are just starting to be released that may tell the story.

    Bell Labs relocated from midtown Manhattan to Murray Hill, N.J. in 1941, but William and Carol had already moved to a community called Freehold, according to their friend and neighbor, Gerritt E. Fielstra, who told the FBI they had been neighbors there when the Hyde children (born 1927-1932) "were small and in grade school"--a time span which could cover from 1933 up until 1942. However, I have not been able to find Fielstra's name in any census or city directory showing that he actually lived in New Jersey. It was, nevertheless, intriguing to discover that Fielstra had joined the Cosmopolitan Club while a student at the University of Michigan in 1927. His wife, Emily, was enrolled at New York University in 1931, and listed her address as 3916 Packard in Long Island, NY. She was pregnant that year with daughter, Gretchen, who would later attend the University of Michigan's school of music and dance and marry a man named Bouwsma. Daughter Joan (Bornstein) would attend Michigan State in East Lansing. Emily predeceased her husband, and he married Terry Fielstra, according to an obituary for Joan. Their father died in 2001 in St. Petersburg, Florida, after having lived there since as early as 1985. It would be interesting to learn whether the daughters left any records showing they had known the Hyde children.

    Fielstra reported the families remained close over the years, according to Fielstra, who worked for many years in New York City's library, and was available to witness Ruth's passport application in 1952, when she went to Europe for a conference. Six years earlier her sister Sylvia worked at Time magazine during her stint at Antioch College, living with the Fielstra family and giving his name as the person to contact in case of emergency. At that time he lived at 1293 E. 2nd Avenue, the same address he had when he signed Ruth's passport application six years later. [WC Doc. 504 - FBI Brune Jr. Report of 21 Sep 1956]

    During Ruth's 1952 trip, she traveled from Hoboken, N.J. on the Hamburg-Amerika Line to visit several western European countries and attend the conference sponsored by New York's Church of All Nations, a Methodist-sponsored settlement house located at 9 Second Avenue (located in a row of buildings since demolished on the fringes of Greenwich Village). The Fielstras lived on the same street at 1293 S. 2nd, but the Hyde family had been living in Columbus, Ohio, for ten years by that time.

    The conference followed immediately after a semester spent at a school located at 235 East 11th Street in lower Manhattan, as Ruth's testimony to the Warren Commission reveals:
    Mr. JENNER - And then in the fall quarter 1951, that is October, apparently, through January 1952, and then March through May of 1952 you were a recreation instructor and a leader in the Downtown Community School in New York City, N.Y.; is that correct?
    Mrs. PAINE - That is after reentering Antioch.
    Mr. JENNER - Yes.
    Mrs. PAINE - Right. The job you describe was part of my work placement from Antioch College.
    Jenner took each of her jobs in order without inquiring further. He asked no questions about Ruth's summer in Europe or the curriculum of the school where she worked shortly before the summer trip, whose program fit in with the type of education offered to Antioch College students. We learn elsewhere that:
    The Downtown Community School was a progressive, cooperative, racially integrated school, founded in 1944 by a group of parents and educators. As director, [Norman] Studer attempted to create a curriculum that was aimed at promoting a healthy concept of self and a deeper understanding of society.
    The 1940 census reveals that William Hyde did show his occupation by then as an insurance agent instead of a chemist, and reported that he had lived in this same town five years earlier. Ruth told the Warren Commission that when she was eight years old (1940), the family moved back to New York for two years, and moved to Columbus, Ohio, in 1942.

    Commies Under the Bed?

    It is the 1930 census, however, which is the most revealing. It indicated that the Hydes, who knew  Talbot Bielefeldt from Stanford days, showed him as a resident with them at their apartment near Columbia, while he allegedly worked as a clerk at a credit reporting agency. He then more or less disappears from public sight until 1936, when he was awarded the position of Postmaster in his hometown, the same town, coincidentally, where Richard Nixon’s family had lived in 1920.

    When I looked up Talbot’s name in Mary Ferrell’s database, what immediately popped up was the fact that Talbot Bielefeldt was a CIA agent no later than 1953, cleared to attend that year’s war college along with several other persons whose names were familiar:
    • E. Howard Hunt, 
    • Thomas W. Braden
    • Cord Meyer, Jr. and 
    • Tracy Barnes. 
    The above memorandum was signed by Matthew Baird, a director of training for CIA, whose picture was shown in a 1951 article in People Today (see clipping).

    A 1955 memorandum written by Talbot to the CIA’s security division for employee clearances reported about his being invited by Ruth’s brother-in-law, John Hoke, to meet with William Avery Hyde, the father of Ruth Hyde Paine. The name of another person also invited was redacted from the memo. The subject line reads “Paul and Violet Orr,” and the body mentions that “we three” knew each other at Stanford.

    In 1955 Paul and Violet Orr were fired from jobs they held in California because of Senator Joe McCarthy’s campaign to weed Communists out of the government. Clearly, from other information in the files, Talbot was also investigated, but those files have not been located to date.

    The job Paul Orr lost in 1955 was at Caltech in Pasadena, California, where NASA's jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) was located; he had previously been in charge of the biology stockroom. Many newspapers reported that he refused to give evidence about his membership in communist groups when he was called to testify by Congressman Richard Nixon's House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).

    In 1928 Paul and Violet had traveled to Moscow and Leningrad to teach English in Russia for two years. Immigration records show they returned in 1930, giving the same address where Talbot and the Hydes lived that year. Were they Communists? Were they spies? The answer is that at this point we don’t really know. Had Paul Orr obtained a security clearance before being placed in charge of JPL's biology stockroom? We know that after returning from Russia, the Orrs lived in Richmond, California, across the bay from San Francisco for several years during the mid-1930's.

    Ruth and Her Siblings

    Let’s move forward to the next generation. I discovered numerous documents about the Paine family at NARA, which contains an excellent search engine. One person interviewed by the FBI stated Ruth had attended Middlebury College in Vermont for two months in 1959, while she was pregnant, just before she and Michael moved to Texas. The Russian language course she took was designed for persons who could speak Russian fluently; Ruth had never studied Russian before but was able to attend because another student had cancelled at the last moment.

    The Hyde folder at NARA also indicates that a neighbor reported that William A. Hyde had his wife, Carol, committed to a mental hospital in 1960. After getting out, she divorced him the same year and enrolled at Oberlin College, where her parents had graduated many years earlier. Although her father had been in the Congregationalist ministry before working for the poultry cooperative, Carol was ordained as a Unitarian minister. On page 8 of the file it is reported that an informant had reported to the FBI in 1954 that Carol Hyde had been a speaker at a group in Columbus, Ohio called the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, considered by officials as a Communist front group.

    Michael Paine was also a member of the Unitarian Church, not uncommon for members of the Forbes family in Massachusetts. Ruth Hyde became interested in the Friends Society possibly as early as 1948 (according to her friend, Mary Forman). Both of Ruth's parents, however, had attended a   Unitarian church by that time. According to the Warren Report, Ruth graduated in 1955 from Antioch, and had become a Quaker during high school in 1951 the same time as her brother, Carl Dudley Hyde. However, one witness, Mrs. Richard Eastman, stated that she met Ruth in 1947 or '48 when Ruth attended the Friends' Bible School, while living at home and also going to Antioch College. This college, it has been stated, had some strange ties to Albert Schweitzer College, to which Lee Oswald submitted an application shortly before he was scheduled to leave the Marine Corps.

    It is even stranger to learn from Stephen Frank Jacobs, that he knew Ruth well enough to attend her wedding and correspond with her twice a year when he actually graduated from Antioch in 1951 and obtained a Ph.D in physics from Johns Hopkins in 1957. Ruth's friend from Antioch, Carol Freedman (later Townsend), stated they roomed together in 1954 and 1955. (See complete NARA file). How could she possibly have known Jacobs, who was at Antioch from 1947-51, if she was still there in 1955? Did she possibly start classes at Antioch when she was only 15? Could Jacobs have her confused with Sylvia? We may never know.

    An obit notice in NY Times indicates Carol Freedman Townsend's mother (Mrs. Zac Freedman), was also known as was Irene Thirer, who died on Feb. 19, 1964. She was a "Motion Picture editor and critic of N.Y. Post, wife of [Aaron] Zac, mother of Mrs. Lee Townsend and Charles Freedman, grand­mother of Laird Charles Townsend, sister of Mrs. Marjory Geiss and Mrs. Richard P. McKeon of Chicago." Carol Townsend lived in Greenwich, CT (Bush family bailiwick) until 1976, when she moved to San Francisco. Her second husband was Milton Moskowitz. She died in 1995.

    Ruth’s sister, Sylvia Hyde, married a man named John Hoke and obtained a security clearance to work in Air Force intelligence. J. Edgar Hoover sent the FBI reports on Sylvia Hyde Hoke, which were made in September and October of 1956 and in February 1957, to J. Lee Rankin of Warren Commission in 1964. It appears that Sylvia decided not to pursue employment in June 1957 prior to completion of the the security clearance, Hoover indicated in his letter to Rankin, referring him to check further with the Office of Special Investigations, Department of the Air Force. He also forwarded 1953 FBI reports which had been generated when Ruth's brother, Carl Dudley Hyde, applied for the status of conscientious objector during the Korean War. The actual files appear near the end of the file identified as

    Beginning in February, 1956, at least seven months before the FBI furnished any reports in connection with Sylvia Hoke's employment with the Department of the Air Force, four FBI confidential informants were reporting on activities of a woman named Dorothy Hazel Wilson, who lived less than two miles south of the Columbia University neighborhood in New York City, where the Hydes had lived in 1930. In 1943 Wilson had become a member of the North Beach, California, Branch of the Communist Party, and she subscribed to People's World, a Communist newspaper published by the Pacific Publishing Foundation, Inc.

    By 1955 Wilson was in contact with a Communist named Isadore Gibby Needleman, who worked for Amtorg Trading Agency, the USSR's official organ of trade, according to a fifth confidential informant. Other confidential informants, apparently assigned to follow Wilson in New York, reported on her employment by Helen Hoke Associates, a business owned by Sylvia Hoke's mother-in-law in 1956. This business was at Lexington Avenue and 49th Street in the Hotel Shelton. She later married Franklin Watts, and published her books under his name with the address of 699 Madison Avenue in New York. Incorporation papers included the name of Dorothy H. Wilson.

    The report on Sylvia went back to her birth and dug deeply into her education at Antioch College, which had a cooperative program to send its students to an internship program in New York City. Sylvia, a psychology major, had interned with the YMCA in New York one semester, according to James Curtis Day, Antioch's placement counselor, working from March to July as a "test scorer." During one six-week portion of this internship, Sylvia lived at 101 West 55th Street, in the home of the woman who would later become her mother-in-law: Helen Hoke (who later married Franklin Watts).

    Shortly after Sylvia's graduation from Antioch College, her mother, Carol Hyde, began telling neighbors (who reported the information to the Columbus, Ohio office of the FBI) that she was a Communist. By this time William Hyde was working at an insurance company affiliated with the Consumers Coop--the Farm Bureau--at its Columbus office headquarters. Neighbors reported that the Hydes regularly associated with "foreigners," and persons of different races. One neighbor with whom they were friendly was Dr. Margaret Shuttleworth, who said they told her they were Quakers and pacifists until WWII but then changed their belief, although their children may have continued with the same religion.

    Another Confidential Informant from Cincinnati reported that Carol Hyde spoke to a meeting of the Women's International League of Peace and Freedom in 1954 and stated that all people are made by one creator. This local chapter had been formed in 1952 by Ruth Hamlin, said to be a member of the Communist Party. By 1955 this group was working for disarmament. By this time the Air Force was apparently attempting to gather witnesses to testify against Sylvia at her security clearance hearing. The FBI consulted the credit reporting agencies, who furnished information from credit applications pertaining to addresses and work history. The credit information in 1955 stated Sylvia's husband, John Hoke, was a public relations official.

    By 1957 the FBI reported that Dorothy Wilson had in January 1957 told her associate Isadore Gibby Needleman that John Hoke was employed by AAA in Washington, D.C. at the same time Sylvia worked with "Naval Intelligence." She also said Helen Hoke was getting out of the publishing business except for maintaining limited luncheon contacts. Wilson revealed that she was relatively certain the to secret Air Force clearance would not be granted to Sylvia Hoke.

    The NARA file that contains reports on Ruth's background reveal she applied for a passport in May of 1952 in order to spend two months in Europe, to attend a conference presented by the Church of All Nations (9 Second Avenue in New York), and to visit Holland, Germany, France and England. Her passport application was witnessed by a family friend, Gerritt E. Fielstra, who shared similar views with the Hydes.

    The FBI report quoted findings of other confidential informants related to Gerritt Fielstra, a New York librarian who attempted to form a union and to organize discussion groups in the 1940's. It is quite fascinating, apart from anything in the FBI file, to discover that Fielstra graduated from the University of Michigan in 1927 and was a member of the Cosmopolitan Club, the same club Carol and her friends had been members of only two or three years earlier at Stanford. By 1930 he and his wife and daughter lived in Queens, New York.

    His name was mentioned in "The Negro-Caucasian Club: A History,"Michigan quarterly review (Volume VIII, Issue: 2, Spring 1969, pp. 97-106):
    ...Emily Hulbert and Gerritt Fielstra together. They married in 1928. They had listened to the lecture of W. E. B. Du Bois that year, and, shocked and stirred, they planned their honeymoon trip accordingly. They drove to Nashville, and visited Fisk University and Meharry Medical School, staying several days in the dormitories and getting to know the Negro students in their daily lives. Then they drove on to Atlanta and stayed several days with the students of Morehouse and Spelman Colleges. The truth of segregation at first hand was devastating to all old prejudices.
    The FBI report on the Paines also delved into the background of Michael's family, revealing that after her divorce from Lyman Paine, in about 1935 Ruth moved to Santa Barbara, California for about a year and was said to be producing ballets, "designing sets and costumes herself." She was in Santa Barbara a year or two after William Lee Ustick received a fellowship in 1933 from the Henry E. Huntington Library in San Marino to study Renaissance literature. The two cities were about 115 miles apart.

    In 1940, Ruth Paine and her sons appeared twice in the census at two different addresses. One showed her to be living at at 39 Mt. Auburn Street, though the word "cancel" appears to have been written over the entry in pencil. A second enumeration appears for her and her sons at 12 Dunstable Road in Cambridge, Massachusetts with W. Lee Ustick, an English professor, originally from St. Louis. Dr. Ustick had taught previously at Washington University and at Goucher College near the campus of Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. Although he appears to have been married to Eugenie Miltenberger Ustick, his wife was not shown in the Cambridge home with him while Ruth and her boys were there. This was a year before she married Giles Waldo Thomas. However, Eugenie was listed in the city directory with him in 1941 and subsequent years. Mrs. Ustick was an alumna of Bryn Mawr, a Quaker college, where her daughter Ellen was also later enrolled. It is possible the mother and daughter went abroad during 1940.

    As a boy Ustick had lived at 4207 Westminister Place, only a block from the home of Max Kotany, a Hungarian stockbroker who married Mrs. G. H. Walker's sister, Mildred Wear. G.H. Walker was, of course, Prescott Bush's father-in-law. In 1921, Prescott and his wife, the former Dorothy Walker of St. Louis, had lived in Milton, Massachusetts, only two blocks from where Ruth Forbes had lived at the time. Years later this Ruth Paine would join Cord Meyer's World Federalist Movement, after becoming appalled by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan. She asked the United Nations' U-Thant how she could help, and he sent her to Indar Jit Rikhye, who became the first president of her organization, the International Peace Academy.

    Ruth Hyde's father was also working with US AID, but we don’t know in what capacity. He appears to have spent some time in South America, Peru in particular. Evidence so far is quite sketchy, but we know that in 1963, after Ruth had dropped Marina Oswald off in New Orleans, she drove her station wagon, children in tow, leaving Michael behind at the Bell Helicopter plant, all the way from New Orleans to Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Washington, D.C. before returning back in time to fetch the pregnant woman and young June and take them back to Irving, Texas. By this time her parents had divorced, and her mother, had become a Unitarian minister. She visited with each family member separately, as well as Michael’s parents, who had invited her to the family reunion that summer on Naushon Island, just off Nantucket, Massachusetts. We can only wonder whether one of the Kennedys sailed by on their yacht that summer.

    The Naushon Island retreat was a private island that had been purchased many decades earlier by John Murray Forbes, presumably with some of the massive profits he had earned in China engaged in the opium trade. It was his son, William Hathaway Forbes, who had consolidated AT&T, which set up Bell Labs to do research and development. Michael’s mother was a granddaughter of W.H. Forbes. Her father was Ralph Emerson Forbes, who married Elise Cabot. Both sides of the family were heavily involved in the China trade and with privateering as far back as the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Most of the research on this has been posted at one or another of my blogs.

    Michael Paine had studied engineering and had worked for several years constructing models from the helicopter plans drafted by his stepfather, Arthur Young, who sold the designs to Bell Aircraft Corporation in New York in 1941. (See interview with Raymond Entenmann.) When Lawrence Bell built the helicopter plant in Hurst, Texas in 1951, he created a separate subsidiary called Bell Helicopter, which hired Michael after  Bell died in 1956. Arthur Young retired, Michael married Ruth in 1957, and Michael and Ruth moved to Texas. They bought a home in Irving, a few miles from the Bell Helicopter plant in Hurst, in about 1958. At some point during these events, a pregnant Ruth Paine found time to worm her way into Middlebury College to study Russian.

    It was not long after their move to Texas that a strange new type of corporation bought the company which employed Michael. The new owner, a conglomerate called Textron, got its name from the fact that it was created originally to buy up textile mills, mostly located in New England. In fact, the man who envisioned the octopus-like entity had begun began his buying spree shortly after WWI concluded. During the war most of such plants had been converted to war production. Most factories of this type could also make weapons, and it is highly likely that they had been purchased by the government, and that the apparent owner was engaged in selling off the assets of these old mills as surplus. We must remind ourselves that Prescott Bush's father, Samuel Bush, of Columbus, Ohio, was a high-ranking member of the War Industries Board during WWI. Shortly after the war, Prescott married Dorothy Walker, whose father, G. H. Walker, stood to inherit the dry goods business and textile mills owned by his own father and siblings--Ely & Walker Co. Further research would need to be done in this connection.

    What we know at this point is that the parent corporation, Bell Aircraft, sold only its “defense and government products operations” to Textron, which had set up assorted charitable trusts based in Providence, R.I. Through these trusts Textron held title to the corporate stock of companies such as Bell Helicopter. The SEC referred to Textron as “the world’s first conglomerate.” Other sources called it a pyramid arrangement. My suspicion is that something totally different was going on. Money was being moved into these tax-free trusts which were stockpiling war materiel at the precise time coups were being staged by American and British intelligence operatives in Guatemala and in Iran. In 1954, the United States was looking toward taking over from France the war that had been ongoing for decades in the colonial empire in Indo-China. Money was needed in massive amounts to fight communism. I suspect that Textron was a proprietary of the first order.

    Textron paid the purchase price for Bell Helicopter’s assets and stock on July 1960 with $32 million cash.

    In today’s dollars that would equate to more than a quarter billion in cash!

    Where did the money come from? How much of the company’s stock was owned by Michael Paine’s mother and stepfather? We may never know, but it would be fascinating to have access to those records.

    The scheme was devised by G. William Miller, who had been hired by Textron in 1956 as an assistant secretary. After a year he was promoted to vice president of the company and by 1960 was elected company president at the age of 35. Miller came from a lower middle-class background. Born in Oklahoma in 1925 to parents who had migrated from Arkansas, but soon moved on to the oil boom town of Borger, Texas, where Miller went to public schools during the years of depression. After a year at junior college in Amarillo he was awarded a position at the Coast Guard Academy in Connecticut. By the time he graduated with a degree in marine engineering in 1945, the war was practically over, but he began serving his commission in the Pacific, mostly in Okinawa and Shanghai. While there he met and married a Russian émigré Ariadna Rogojarsky (or Rogajarski), according to his 2006 obituary in the New York Times.

    The Coast Guard then financed further education at Boalt School of Law in Berkeley. After graduating among the top of his class, he was hired by the Wall Street law firm of Cravath, Swaine & Moore in 1952. One of his first clients was Textron, for which he handled a proxy fight. Textron’s founder was so impressed, he hired the lawyer to work full-time for the corporation in 1956. He was amazingly successful at what he did, so much so that before long he became governor of the Federal Reserve, and after that he was appointed by Jimmy Carter to be Secretary of the Treasury.

    Beginning in 1953, Textron, this corporation with $6 million in losses, began a buying spree, acquiring over the next few years 40 manufacturing companies which made metal parts or other products which could easily be converted to war production. Textron set up a Massachusetts trust in Providence, R. I., which then issued stock through two investment banks in order to raise funds from investors in the conglomerate which was betting that there was a new war just waiting in the wings.

    In a moment of madness as I wrote this presentation, I found myself wondering what banker might have handled this issue of Textron stock. What I discovered shocked even me:
    The shares of stock in Sixty Trust were issued in 1962 by two investment banks: G.H. Walker & Co. and Blair & Co.
    I’ll repeat that first name. G. H. Walker. Sound familiar? George Herbert Walker, who created that investment bank was the father-in-law in 1960 of Prescott Bush, the father of George Herbert Walker Bush (41) and grandfather of George Walker Bush (43).

    A few years later there were two separate Senate investigations into G. William Miller’s conduct while he served as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board. One involved a payment of $2.9 million made in 1973 by Bell Helicopter to a company called Air Taxi, Inc. Air Taxi was said to be Textron’s sales agent in Iran. It had been discovered by the Senate investigators that Air Taxi was owned by Mohammed Khatami, the Shah’s personal pilot, who also was married to Fatimeh Pahlavi, the Shah’s sister. America’s relationship with the Shah, as I mentioned, dates back to 1953 when Eisenhower’s man in the CIA Allen Dulles was toppling communist governments in Guatemala and Iran. Was Bell Helicopter a CIA proprietary? Was Textron a creation of the CIA to finance the war in Vietnam?

    Khatami had unfortunately died in an accident in 1975 before the first Senate investigation when former chairman of Textron was being approved to serve as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board and later as President Carter’s nominee for Secretary of the Treasury. Although the almost $3 million payment in 1978 was characterized by one senator as a bribe, Miller survived the inquiry.

    At some point before February 1977, the son of Lyndon Johnson's secret back channel briefer, Howard Burris, Jr., married Princess Shahrzad, daughter of the Shah’s eldest sister, Shams. They may have met while she attended Mt. Vernon College, and they were married in a quiet ceremony in the Iranian Embassy in Rome in 1976. Burris’ mother was the daughter of Governor Beauford Jester of Texas, who married Colonel Burris Sr. in 1946, Lyndon Johnson's back channel adviser on intelligence--one of the men who would serve on LBJ's inaugural committee. The other was Col. O. Delk Simpson. Together the two men were given the code names SIO and Intellfirst by Robert Morrow in his book, The Senator Must Die.

    In 1960 Textron earned $14 million, or $2.93 a share, on $383 million in sales. The corporation had 29,000 employees and 90 plants and ranked 124th in size on Fortune magazine's roster of the 500 largest industrial companies. And in 1963, it sold off all its remaining textile operations. In 1968 Miller became Chief Executive Officer of Textron and was elected Chairman and Chief Executive Officer in 1974, a post he held until he moved to the Federal Reserve Board. In December 1968 the announcement was made that Textron had been awarded a $28 million government contract for the HU-1B utility helicopter, more commonly known as the Huey.

    As I said earlier, the best way to understand how our world works:
    Follow the money!

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    Photo Credit
    A Facebook friend recently messaged me to ask whether I had researched the entities mentioned by Wayne January to author Matthew Smith in his book, Conspiracy: The Plot To Stop The Kennedys, pp. 141-45. The name did not ring a bell, so I had to refresh my memory on the computer.

    Here is a Summary of what I learned:
    On November 21, 1963, Wayne January is working side by side with a Cuban born pilot who is to fly a newly purchased DC -3 out of The Redbird Airfield tomorrow. Since early that morning, January has been helping the pilot complete a preflight inspection in order for the plane. The pilot becomes uneasy and finally turns to January and says: ‘they are going to kill your president. January will eventually tell researcher Matthew Smith that the Cuban pilots goes on to say: ‘I was a mercenary pilot, hired by the CIA’. The pilot continues: ‘they are not only going to kill the President. They are going to kill Robert Kennedy and any other Kennedy that gets in their position. When January expresses his skepticism, the pilot replies ‘you will see’. The conversation is dropped for a while, then the pilot breaks the silence: ‘they want Robert Kennedy real bad. ‘When January asks why, the pilot replies ‘never mind. You don’t need to know. Let’s get this job done, time is running out. My boss wants to return to Florida; he thought we would be through today. (Conspiracy) Matthew Smith believes this DC-3 flew the group of assassins out of Dallas the next day Inquiries indicate that the plane was not logged out of The Redbird Airfield. Smith says this is an indication that the plane and its flight plan are under the auspices of the CIA. When Smith asks the FAA for details on the aircraft, he is told that no such plane existed. Later, the FAA does confirm the number of the plane (N-17888) originally belonged to a Douglas DC-3, having later been transferred to another aircraft. Smith eventually learns that the aircraft had been purchased by the Houston Air Center. A former [alleged] CIA agent tells Smith that the Houston Air Center was a front for the CIA.
    Here is another person's take on the book's story:

    One company Wayne January was a partner in was said to be Royal Air Service Inc., which was wrapping up the selling off of large aircraft--supposedly part of a top-secret government program that was interested in developing radar mapping for low-level flying by such planes as the F-111 fighter-bomber. At the time of our story they only had one DC3 left to sell off to finish the contract. This final plane was sold in mid-November by January’s partner and the owner showed up on November 18 to sign for it. January told [author Matthew Smith] he was a very well-dressed gentleman. January said “he was about six feet tall, fair complexioned, brown hair, and late thirties to early forties. His haircut was short, military type, and wore slacks and a sport shirt.”  January also said, “he had no particular accent.”  January said later on he found out he was an Air Force Colonel who specialized in the type of plane being specialized….

    Matthew Smith believes this DC3 flew out of Red Bird that day with the complete team that had murdered JFK. He surmised it went from Dallas to Houston, and he also believes David Ferrie’s “ice skating” trip to Houston was really to fly this plane from Houston to its ultimate destination.

    Smith tried to trace this plane and did learn that the number (N-17888) had been tied to a DC3 after initially being told a different type plane had that number and the DC3 never “existed.”

    He also found out that the plane had been purchased by the Houston Air Center.  Mr. Smith then contacted a former CIA Agent out of Houston and asked him if he would check this out for him. The former CIA Agent said the Houston Air Center was a “CIA front.
    But the best explanation of the incident was written by Larry Hancock., whose book, incidentally--once I located it on its backshelf, covered in dust--proved I had actually read of the episode years ago and even underlined parts of it.The following is from Hancock's article appearing at CTKA.net:
    The plane had come to Red Bird in January 1963 and was owned by two different companies there during that year. Wayne January was a partner in both companies. At some point that year, the aircraft had been heavily modified, all the seats had been removed from the plane and it had been reclassified with the FAA as a research and development aircraft. We also know that it had been sold to individuals of the Houston Air Center, but paperwork was not actually completed until it was eventually resold outside the U.S. to a company named Aerovias del Sur. The records place that company’s headquarters in Mexico City, however, defunct companies of that name can be found in Cuba, Mexico and Columbia. Further tracing seems virtually impossible. 

    Another tack in evaluating January’s overall story of the incident is to look at where such aircraft were indeed being used covertly during the timespan of 1964-1965. Records reveal that the Cuban exile autonomous group initiative supported by Robert Kennedy in 1963 was in the process of buying and leasing a broad variety of equipment, both boats and planes. That effort was led by Manual Artime and records demonstrate that extensive “cut outs” were used to shield its financial activities — and the fact that the U.S. was funding the project. Available records confirm that Artime did lease a similar Douglas transport aircraft until his project was closed down in 1965. Artime’s personnel were all Cuban exiles and his funding, purchasing and leasing were all carried out by CIA staff in a highly covert project designated as AMWORLD.  

    Another covert operation involving aircraft and Cuban exile personnel would have been the highly secret dispatch of aircraft and Cuban exile pilots to the Congo, which began in 1963. A joint effort of the American military assistance mission and the CIA, the effort focused primarily on providing B-26 fighter-bombers and Cuban exile pilots. However a number of transport aircraft and technicians were also sent into the Congo in 1964.[10]

    A third option, and one especially interesting in regard to the modifications and R&D recertification of the Red Bird aircraft, is the fact that a variety of covert air assets were being prepared to go into Laos in this period. In addition, the Air Force was developing the class of modified C-47 gunships eventually known as “Spooky”. The craft were totally stripped internally to allow the mounting of heavy machine guns and cannon.[11]  Development of these gunships was underway in 1964 and the first aircraft were deployed into Vietnam in 1964. Therefore, the aspect of January’s story about the pilot being familiar with certain veterans of the Bay of Pigs is supportable.

    January indicated to Smith that it was his understanding that the series of aircraft being purchased through companies at Red Bird and Houston Air Center were being processed through a series of cut out sales for eventual use in secret government projects. Investigation confirms that such projects and cut out sales were most definitely occurring at that time.  It also confirms that Cuban exiles were very much involved in some of them. Of course, if January had gone to the FBI with such an incident at the time, it obviously would have had security implications as well as a negative impact on his own business. Beyond that, it would have likely done little good, as we have a number of examples from both Texas and Miami that show the FBI was not at all interested in following up on Cuban exile assassination leads; even when they had specific names in hand.[12]

    After 50 years it is virtually impossible to carry Wayne January’s most significant lead to a final resolution. Still, with what has been learned about both January himself, as well as the aircraft sale, it seems rather foolish to write it all off as some sort of fiction. Especially since Wayne January never told anyone but Smith and then only with the promise of total anonymity. If true, it could offer a major insight into the President’s assassination.
    Here is the research I did in answer to a question of a curious reader who thought my interest about people in Texas might reveal a deeper part of the story:

    Tail number N-17888

    Everything I know about tail numbers I learned from my friend Daniel Hopsicker. In fact, I picked up almost as much knowledge about this subject from him as he learned about the Texas Railroad Commission from me. Virtually zero. So...here goes.

    A google search of the tail number showed the plane had been part of Braniff’s fleet used during August, 1952 through May 1960. How does one find out to whom Braniff sold it? Apparently, that was where Wayne January's companies came in. Wiki tells us all we need to know about Braniff. The specific airplane we're dealing with started life at Mid-Continent and was transferred to Braniff in 1952 when the companies merged. From Wiki we learn that things began to change dramatically at that point:
    Braniff and Edgar Tobin, among others, died in crash.
    On January 10, 1954 Braniff founder Thomas Elmer Braniff died when a flying boat owned by United Gas crash-landed on the shore of Wallace Lake, 15 miles outside of Shreveport, Louisiana due to icing. According to information from Captain George A. Stevens: "Mr Braniff was on a hunting expedition with a group of important citizens of Louisiana. They were departing from a small duck hunting lake out of Shreveport in a Grumman Mallard aircraft with no deicing system. The wings iced up and they attempted to land. One of the wings hit cypress stumps and the plane crashed against the shore. It caught fire and all 12 lives aboard were lost."[1]
    Braniff Executive Vice President Charles Edmund Beard became the first non-Braniff family member to assume the role of President of the airline after Tom Braniff's untimely death. Mr. Beard gathered Braniff employees to announce that the airline would move forward and assured the public that the airline would continue.
    Paul R. Braniff died later that year of cancer.[6] Tom Braniff's wife, Bess Braniff, also died in 1954. Tom's son Thurman Braniff was killed in a training plane crash at Oklahoma City in 1938, and his daughter Jeanne Braniff Terrell died in 1948 from complications of childbirth.[1]
    That must have been one unlucky airplane for the Braniff family! I decided the book by John J. Nance, footnoted in the Wiki citation, was a must-read and placed an order: Splash of Colors: The Self-Destruction of Braniff International. Had I not already done some research into the alleged buyer of this airplane, my interest would not have been piqued by some of the facts surrounding the death of the Braniffs! For example, who else was involved in the hunting expedition in Shreveport which killed Tom Braniff in a United Gas-owned seaplane? But I'm getting ahead of myself. We'll return to this in a moment.

    Tracking the N-number of the plane further leads one to think January may have been acting as a broker for the company which sold it to Houston Air Center, which later sold it to the foreign company, Aerovias del Sur. However, the timeframes do not seem to fit airlines that used that Spanish name, with one exception: Guadalajara - Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla International (GDL / MMGL) Mexico, 1967This linked photo clearly depicts a green and white airplane. But I may be confused by other reports mentioning a green and white Piper Comanche. Was the plane a DC-3 or a Piper? See a review of Smith's book at Amazon. I am obviously not understanding the part about the people who wanted to fly to the Yucatan, which is actually on the east coast of Mexico. But we ignore that and move on to Dallas.

    Red Bird Airport

    Red Bird Airport was located at 4800 S. Hampton Road in Dallas. The 1960 phone directory shows the only company listed there that year was Texair, Inc., 4837 S. Hampton Road, Dallas [click link to see map]. This is the servicing company mentioned by the Garrison investigation in 1967. Today that site is the location of Dallas Executive Airport.

    Red Bird was then about 3.7 miles from the Januarys' 1960 home -- 931 S. Montreal (see inset at left), while Braniff was based at Love Field in Dallas. Before construction of the interstate highway, the two air fields were 13 miles apart via Hampton Road routing through Oak Cliff and passing Sunset High School, from which Wayne January graduated, according to information we have gleaned from various sources. 
    Wayne January was born in Coryell County, Texas in 1931 to Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hasten January. He attended Sunset High School on the southwest side of Dallas, where in 1947 he played in the orchestra. He graduated in 1951, the same year his father died. His father's obituary reads:

    News Circulation Employee, Charles H. January, 65, Dies - Charles Haston January, 65, a district manager of the Dallas News' circulation department, died of a heart attack at his desk Wednesday. He had been with The News for eight years, and was in charge of twenty-eight carriers of the West Dallas district.

    He lived at 824 North Edgefield [mere blocks from the high school].

    Before coming to The News, January was captain of the Highland Park fire department for twenty years, and before that was a member of the Dallas fire department for seven years.

    January was born in Shelby County in 1886. As a young man, he joined with others in setting up an oil refinery in De Leon, Comanche County. In 1909 he sold his interest in the refinery and moved to Dallas.

    He was a member of the Round Table, Dallas News employee organization.

    Surviving are his wife, the former Miss Vadah Baldwin of Dallas, whom he married in June, 1918; five sons, W. Spencer January and Wayne January, both of Dallas, Farold January of Waco, C. H. January, in service in Korea, and Lawrence E. January, at an Air Force base in Alabama; two daughters, Mrs. Ruth Landers and Mrs. Shirley Hurley, both of Dallas; one sister, Mrs. Blanche Morrison of Center; and four brothers, Dillon January and Luther January, both of Dallas, Walter January of San Antonio, and Hugh January of Houston; and seven grandchildren. Funeral arrangements had not been completed Wednesday night.

    - Dallas Morning News, November 15, 1951 

    Wayne’s older brother, C.H. Jr., enlisted in the Army in 1942 and served the military for 20 years as a veteran of WWII and the Korean War, and was also assigned to the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, NM. He died in 2011 in Denton.

    In 1966 Wayne married Sylvia Gwynn Landrum, though we see from directories in 1960 and before that his wife was Delores; Wayne died in 2002 in Ellis County.

    The Mary Ferrell website contains a document placed in Oswald’s 201 file concerning the interview of Wayne January, who had called his local FBI office on November 27, 1963 and spoke to Spec. Agt. John V. Almon. It took Almon and Agent Kenneth B. Jackson two days to make it out to conduct a personal interview with January on the 29th at Red Bird Airport terminal building in Room 101.  The interview began with a discussion about Jack Ruby's Carousel Club, which January admitted to frequenting between February and April of 1963, beginning a month or so after the airplane and others arrived at January's company at Red Bird. It was during this same time frame he reported receiving calls about chartering an airplane.

    I found online a text version of the document, apparently posted by John Watters at alt.assassination.jfk in July 2002 and reposted by Peter Fokes. including these prefatory remarks:
    From my reading of the FBI memo below there seems to be an implied connection between January's frequenting of the Carousel Club between February and April 1963 and the two anonymous phone calls in February and March 1963. The Feebs did not ask if there was any connection with the Carousel, whether he recognized the voice(s) or whether the men had given any indication why they had chosen him particularly.

    They did not ask him why he would surmise that the trip to Laredo involved narcotics. What made him jump to this conclusion, the person asking the favour (in which case did he know them ?) or thedestination itself (was Laredo synonymous with narcotics ?).

    The Feebs do not seem to have raised an eyebrow at the call re $12 million of gold dust - $12 MILLION ??!! Wow, if this kind of caper was connected to the Carousel and Ruby, Jack could hardly be dismissed as just a nightclub owner and small-time hoodlum.

    I confess I don't understand the significance of the comments re plain clothes officers in the Carousel but I guess the Feebs must have had their reasons for including this in their report.

    The report includes January's views on Ruby - not something you would expect from someone who had just gone to the guy's nightclub for a while. The Feebs don't appear to have asked January how often he had spoken to Ruby, how long he had known him, how well he knew him etc etc.

    And finally, on to LHO - the Feebs played down January's identification of LHO, changed the date of the incident from 20 November to late July and emphasized that the man asking the questionshad not been LHO. (No-one had ever claimed that the man asking the questions was LHO - January clearly stated that LHO had stayed in the car).

    Is there an implied connection between the flights January was asked to make in February/March and the LHO incident in November?
    The memo itself was captioned as follows:  

    Matthew Smith's "JFK: The Second Plot" contains the following FBI memo which Harold Weisberg obtained under the FOIA:
    "The following interview was conducted by SA's KENNETH B. JACKSON and JOHN V. ALMON on November 29, 1963:

    WAYNE JANUARY, owner, American Aviation Company, Room 101, Terminal Building, Red Bird Airport, Dallas, Texas, advised that from February through April, 1963, he, together with several friends, on occasion frequented the Carousel Club, Dallas, Texas, which he understands is owned by one JACK RUBY.

    JANUARY stated that during February, 1963, he received an anonymous telephone call from a  man who offered him the sum of $5,000.00 to fly to Laredo, Texas, and back with no questions asked. JANUARY said that he surmised that this individual planned to transport narcotics to Dallas and for this reason he declined the offer. JANUARY further stated that during March, 1963, he received a second anonymous telephone call from a man who wanted him to fly $12,000,000.00 worth of gold dust to Mexico City where he was to pick up the currency and return with it to Dallas. He stated that this individual offered him $400,000.00 to make this flight which he also declined.

    JANUARY stated that during the latter part of July, 1963, a man and a woman whom he had never seen before contacted him at his office at which time they inquired about chartering a plane for a trip to "Old Mexico". JANUARY stated that when he asked this man questions essential to such a flight he was definitely evasive in his answers. JANUARY explained that this individual did not appear to know exactly where he desired to go in Mexico but said something about the West Coast. Furthermore, he did not appear to know when he desired to return or or exactly how many passengers could be expected on the flight. JANUARY said that this man, after stating that he did not wish to make the flight for a couple of months, stated that he would consider the information which JANUARY had given him and let him knowat a later date. He said that when the couple left he observed a third man who had been waiting in their automobile during the entire conversation, and after observing a photograph of LEE HARVEY OSWALD on television it now seems to him that this man somewhat resembled OSWALD although he was not definitely sure in this respect. JANUARY was unable to offer any additional information which might be of assistance in identifying the man and woman who inquired about the flight to Mexico. He said that they did not appear to him to be persons of sufficient financial means to charter a trip such as the one discussed.

    JANUARY reiterated the fact that the man, accompanied by the unidentified woman, who made inquiries concerning a chartered flight to Mexico, was not LEE HARVEY OSWALD and said that he has no records or any other method of identifying the persons who contacted him during the latter part of July, 1963.

    JANUARY further commented that he never visited the Carousel Club when he did not observe several plainclothes officers, and when a friend of his attempted to date one of the performers, KATHY KAY, she informed this friend that she had to go with another man, whom she identified as a plainclothes officer.

    JANUARY concluded with the opinion that JACK RUBY was not the type of individual who would have killed, or attempted to kill, anyone charged with the assassination of the President. He said that he does not think that RUBY would care that much, even about his own mother."
    We are told by Smith that:
    Wayne January had never seen this memo until Matthew Smith showed it to him and, according to one of Smith's books, "was amazed when this author told him the FBI stated he had said his visitors, including Oswald, had called several MONTHS before the assassination, instead of two days before." January said, "How would I have been able to remember the face to compare with the pictures of Oswald I saw on television for that long? It was the Wednesday before the assassination."
    Smith also says, "As opposed to the uncertain identification stated in the report, January told this author his identification of Oswald was so strong he would give it nine out of ten."
    We pick up in our next post with research into exactly who owned the Houston Air Center and find out what it was about United Gas that intrigued me so.

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    This is a story about how people involved in intelligence operations hide behind corporations, and about how corporations disguise covert ops behind the guise of business. When I began this research project, I had no pre-conceived notions about what I might find. After a few delays and one accidental deletion, things are finally becoming clearer. After years of doing this sort of research it has been my experience that accidents--such as inadvertently deleting material that was almost complete--are gifts rather than mistakes. Starting over without groaning, following new instincts, usually leads in a direction that would have been missed otherwise. In this case that new direction led me to David Harold Byrd, as you will see below.

    In Part I we reviewed briefly the title to Tail Number N-17888, set out in documents provided to me by Alan Kent. Larry Hancock wrote that, according to what Wayne January told author Mitchell Smith, N-17888 was one of several airplanes he sold which were to be used in secret government projects, after "being processed through companies at Red Bird and Houston Air Center." Thus it appears someone within those companies was a witting accomplice with the Central Intelligence Agency. Our aim in this segment is to answer the question of who was involved in creating and operating Houston Air Center.

    NAvion Aircraft History

    Refer back in Part I to the section under the heading "Background Title on N-1788," where we reviewed the title to the Red Bird airplane. Before coming to Wayne January's company, its previous long-time owner had been Navion Aircraft Co., a division of TUSCO. Here we will explore who that was and what that fact represents.

    The first airplanes called NAvions were built for the Air Force during the final years of WWII at the former Hensley Field, created in 1940 as a training base for Army and Navy pilots. North American Aviation was a defense plant operated by the federal government there, just east of Grand Prairie. Along with it was a housing development (called Avion Village) set up to provide housing for the almost 40,000 workers this plant and others in the area employed until 1945.

    Eventually, this same Grand Prairie plant would be operated by Texas Engineering and Manufacturing Company, known by its acronym, TEMCO, a company which by 1947 was making B-25 bombers for South American countries, including Brazil and Mexico, under its president and general manager, Robert McCulloch. By the end of 1948, Temco would roll out its first "reconditioned" airplane for the Chinese Nationalist government, backed by the Office of Strategic Services during the closing days of WWII.

    In a previous post at this blog, QJ reported on how the Nationalist Chinese army had financed its purchases of military hardware, using CIA bankers as middlemen in converting opium into airplanes by quoting from The Marcos Dynasty by Sterling Seagrave:
    [Paul] Helliwell’s first major assignment after the war was to find a way for the CIA to subsidize the airline, Civil Air Transport, owned by Major General Claire L. Chennault, which had been used to furnish materiel to the anticommunist Chinese in Southeast Asia. In 1951 Helliwell set up Sea Supply as the CIA’s first proprietary company in order to transport weapons to the Nationalist Chinese troops in Burma and to Thailand police, whose Chief was involved in the opium trade. The planes were not returned empty after the guns were unloaded; they were filled with drugs destined for the United States — usually Florida. The money derived from the sale of the drugs had to be laundered for the CIA, and Helliwell figured out how to do it.
    Neil Mallon of Dresser joined Temco Board.
    At this same Grand Prairie plant, Temco would soon be building a variety of aircraft in the light twin market throughout the post-WWII and Korean War years, but NAvcon's single-engine four-seater "type certificate" had been sold in late 1948 to Ryan Aeronautical Co. Temco had ceased making this design for civilians in order to fulfill an Air Force contract awarded it that year for the military version (L-17) used in the Korean war.

    Gerard P. Moran, at his website celticowboy, has written a concise history of Navion aircraft. The "type certificate," was the abstract design of the plane approved by CAA, and not the business entity authorized to manufacture the design. According to Moran:
    By 1949 Ryan began introducing changes to improve the Navion (the capitalization of the 'A' was dropped as it was an abbreviation of North American). Auxiliary fuel tanks, improved instrumentation were popular options, as were colorful paint schemes. Ryan produced another 158 upgraded L-17Bs ordered in 1948 by the United States Air Force and a final order of 5 L-17Bs in 1949 for the Hellenic (Greek) Air Force....
    Even though Ryan's order books were full, Ryan had to face an undeniable truth -- they lost money on every Navion they built. Each plane cost about $15,000 to make, and basic models were selling for as little as $9,500. At the end of 1952 Ryan ceased all Navion production. A total of 2,350 had been completed (1 prototype, 1,109 by NAA and 1,240 by Ryan).
    While the Navion was still in production, the USAF returned (in 1948) to place another order, this time for 163 upgraded L-17Bs. A further 35 L-17As returned to the factory for the same upgrades, becoming L-17Cs. In 1952 the USAF deployed L-17s to the Orient in the first wave of the Korean War....
    For some time, going back to the North American Aviation days, there had been interest in converting the single engine Navion into a more powerful twin engine version. Neither North American or Ryan were able to divert resources to such a project because of increasing military demands.... [O]n November 10, 1952, one full year after starting, with their Twin Navion, the plane, designated D-16 (D for Daubenberger) received its CAA certification. Interestingly, before the Twin Navion the Civil Aviation Authority had no way of certifying modifications as extensive as those done for Daubenberger (all were approved using the Major Repair and Alteration Form). This, plus a couple of other major conversions led the CAA to develop the Supplemental Type Certification [STC] process that is still in place today.
    Almost immediately word of the D-16's existence spread across the United States, and in Florida, Jack Riley entered the Twin Navion story. Jack Riley was a self-made millionaire in the oil business and a natural salesman. He had formed a company, Riley Aircraft Corporation, to sell, refurbish, upgrade or modify general aviation aircraft in Florida. He obtained licensing and or certification from original manufacturers.... He took a trip to see the Navion manufacturing facility in California. After only a couple days in California, the businessman returned home with the Twin Navion's production rights....
    Eager to sell his new twin Jack Riley took his plane to Dallas, Texas, where he demonstrated it to some 30 or 40 potential customers. Riley admitted that owners of single Navions were his primary customers, since they already knew the plane and could continue to expect the same performance, handling and ruggedness that they'd come to expect from their own planes. That tour resulted in the company's first sale, with two more following. Within a couple months the books were filled with orders for more than three dozen planes....

    As production began, prices increased from $20,000 (initial sale price) to $24,850. This was nearly three times the price of a used single Navion but with Jack Riley's salesmanship there were always customers. In March 1953 a production agreement was entered with TEMCO Aircraft Corp., a well known subcontractor, maintenance provider for the USAF and small plane manufacturer. The next month, TEMCO purchased the exclusive production rights to the 'Riley Twins.'Jack Riley meanwhile returned to Florida where he remained responsible for marketing and sales. It also appears that Riley Aircraft served as a broker for Navions, buying them on the used market and then reselling them to TEMCO when an airframe was needed. [Italics added. Keep in mind the old type certificate (TC) for the single-engine Navion was still owned by Ryan.]
    A new corporation was formed to purchase the single-engine design from Ryan Aeronautical. Navion Aircraft Co., later changed to NAV Corp., was initially set up in 1958 as a division of Tubular Service & Engineering Company (TUSCO).

    Who Created TUSCO?

    When I first saw this name, I was struck by its similarity with the name TEMCO, with capital letters used as an acronym for a descriptive name for what the company did. Could the two companies have been created by the same individuals perhaps? I decided to do some digging along this line, comparing the two acronymic manufacturers.

    We look first at a chapter entitled "Byrds, Planes, and an Automobile" from Richard Bartholomew's classic work, Possible Discovery of an Automobile Used in the JFK Conspiracy - Part 4, in which he mentions Temco. The implication is there that Lyndon Johnson had enough influence over Temco's hiring practices to obtain a job with the company which would morph into E-Systems for his favorite assassin, Malcom Everett "Mac" Wallace. Temco began simply enough as a WWII era airplane manufacturer, helped along with financial backing from D. Harold Byrd, Dallas oilman. Byrd, who helped establish the Civilian Air Patrol (CAP), sought out electronics expert James Ling to turn Temco into a conglomerate which added electronics and missiles to balance military and civilian sales. Then Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) "sorta got outa control," as we say in Texas.

    Back in 2011 QJ looked into D. Harold Byrd's foray into uranium mining, exploring his connections in that field, as well as his ownership of the building in Dallas which was to become known as the "Texas State Schoolbook Depository Building," even though it was only leased to that business six months prior to the November 1963 assassination. That curiosity ate up the next year while we examined connections to Israelis in Canada, Roy Cohn and eventually Florida real estate development, not to mention the history of the pseudononymous author of the Torbitt Document. Understanding history is a time-consuming endeavor!

    Even though a photograph of D. H. Byrd appeared in numerous Texas newspapers in December 1932, showing him receiving a flag given him by his "cousin," Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr. of Virginia, genealogical records did not at first indicate there was any kinship between the two men. However, as I dug deeper into Byrd's family background, some amazing facts came to light.

    Stay tuned for the next installment.

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    Researched and written
    by Linda Minor

    D.H. Byrd's CAP outfit flew from Red Bird.
    This post is a sidenote to research I've been doing previously, but it relates only tangentially to the DC-3 plane which Wayne January was selling at the time he was told in advance about the assassination of President Kennedy. January himself had no knowledge of or connection to the group planning the assassination, but the story he revealed to author Matthew Smith sheds light on one small piece in the puzzle as a whole. Possibly the reason so many of us "conspiracy buffs" spend so many years of our lives digging into the 1963 Kennedy assassination is that we can dedicate years of study to it and never solve the puzzle to anyone's satisfaction. It is my opinion that we may be trying to solve the wrong puzzle. We have to broaden our context.

    The FAA Report to FBI--1967

    I began delving into a simple question asked me by a reader about the Wayne January incident, not remembering that Daniel Hopsicker had dealt with one aspect of that question in his book Barry & 'the Boys', originally published in 2001. Daniel has also mentioned what has been referred to as the "getaway plane" at Red Bird Airport at his website, The MadCowNews, under the subheading, "Three men in suits at Redbird Airport," dated November 20, 2013. Keep in mind, however, he was not talking about N-17888, but a different aircraft from the one we have been investigating. Nevertheless, the "getaway plane" was also part of what had been of interest to Matthew Smith in describing events that took place at Red Bird Airport in 1963.

    Ferrie's mugshot
    Garrison's New Orleans investigation had zeroed in on David Ferrie, and he sent an employee to Dallas with Ferrie's photograph (possibly his mugshot) to inquire whether anyone at Red Bird Airport had seen him there in November 1963. Louis Gaudin had not seen Ferrie, but he did disclose a separate suspicious incident he witnessed the afternoon of the assassination. Three men in suits boarded a "Comanche-type aircraft" just over an hour after President Kennedy had been gunned down. Gaudin had not called the FBI at the time because by then Lee Harvey Oswald was in custody, with officials claiming he was the "lone" assassin. Why did Gaudin and Bowles wait to contact the FBI until two weeks after Ferrie's dead body had been found on February 22?

    Daniel Hopsicker tracked down Gaudin, 37 years after the FBI report (dated March 10, 1967), and recounted in his book what the FAA air traffic controller told him:
    “The FAA had its general aviation headquarters there, said Gaudin. “Howard Hughes had a huge old WWII hanger there, with heavy security. People from Wackenhut all over the place. And there were the Porter planes from General Harry Byrd’s outfit.”
    General D. Harry Byrd’s links to the Kennedy assassination begin with the fact that he owned the building, the Texas School Book Depository, from which Kennedy was supposedly gunned down.

    Then, too, he founded an aircraft company that became one of the largest U.S. defense contractors during the Vietnam War, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), which also—and perhaps not coincidentally?—tested missiles at the Venice Airport in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s.

    “What had happened was this,” he continued. “I was an air traffic controller working in the tower at Redbird [sic] that day. When I came on shift at 2 PM, we received a bulletin to report any suspicious activity immediately to an FAA Security number. And we kept calling that number all afternoon, but got nothing but a busy signal. And then, after we heard they had caught the ‘lone gunman,’ I guess they called it, we stopped calling, and let the matter drop.”
    From his perch atop the control tower, Mr. Gaudin, between handling twenty or thirty flights into and out of the airport an hour, had noticed something suspicious about three well-dressed men in business suits standing, along with several suitcase, beside a Comanche painted green-and-white.

    So suspicious was he, Mr. Gaudin related, that when the plane took off on runway 17, he asked the pilot if he needed any assistance. The pilot said no. Gaudin asked which way the plane was heading. The pilot stated south.

    Gaudin watched as the plane flew south for two miles, then made a hard left, and then flew north to Love Field.

    The pilot had lied.

    Suspicions aroused, Gaudin went over to the control tower’s receiver and listened as the plane made an approach and landed at Love Field, eight miles north of Redbird.

    An hour later, the plane was back at Redbird. This time only two people were aboard. The third passenger—let’s call him the shooter–had been left at Love Field.

    And that’s where the matter rested until Garrison’s investigator’s came calling.

    Then, after Gaudin became alarmed at the death of a man whose picture he had just recently been shown, he called the FBI, and filed the report which, he said, became something of a burden to him for the rest of his life.

    “There was no Freedom of Information Act back then,” he says today. “That’s what’s created some problems for me.”

    This would be just a ‘suspicious sighting’ except for something that happened later, which clearly indicated to Gaudin that he was a witness to something he had no business seeing.

    From the control tower, he says, he was too far away to be able to identify anyone who boarded the plane. But there was one person who could: Merrit Goble, who ran the fixed-wing operation, TexAir, at Redbird Field.

    “Merrit and I were friends,” Gaudin relates. “So one day, after filing the FBI report, I went down to see if the FBI had been by to visit him as well. They hadn’t, he told me. So I asked him if he had anything, any gas receipts, any record of the fueling of the plane in question. And Merit acted very strangely. He told me, in effect, that it was none of my business. He said, ‘I will only answer questions from a bonafide law enforcement authority.’”

    “I always thought that was strange: ‘I will only answer questions from a bonafide law enforcement authority.’ Because like I said, we were friends.”

    Merrit Goble died last year, taking any secrets he possessed about the suspicious plane to his grave.
    Bowles worked with LBJ's bro-in-law.
    It is not clear to me from reading Hopsicker's work whether it was Gaudin who told him about Byrd's use of Red Bird for Civil Air Patrol planes, or whether he gleaned that information from another source. "Harry Byrd" usually refers to the Virginia Senator of that name, the brother of Admiral Richard Byrd, Jr., whom D. Harold Byrd claimed as his cousins.

    I also have to ask whether, before calling the FBI, Bowles may first have contacted his own superior at the FAA, who, by 1967 was the President's brother-in-law, Birge D. Alexander, husband of Lucia Huffman Johnson since 1933. Birge rose to the position of Area Manager for the Southwest Region of the F.A.A. not long after brother-in-law Lyndon was himself "promoted". Bowles and Alexander had been officials together at C.A.A., later F.A.A., for many years.

    Birge, Lucia and Rebekah (Libby Willis)
    Birge and his siblings were reared in Sabinal, a tiny town in Uvalde County from 1908 until leaving for college in Austin. Before 1908, home had been at Manchaca Springs, in south Travis County, where Birge's grandfather is buried.

    Robert Carogoes into more detail.
    Alexander played center for the Sabinal football squad and was named all-district center in 1929. A few years later Birge was off to the University of Texas to study engineering. Graduating in 1939, he immediately went to work for the Lower Colorado River Authority, a job for which he unquestionably had his brother-in-law, the newly elected Congressman Johnson from the district, to thank.

    Within a short time, however, Birge transferred to a different government job at the Civil Aeronautics Administration, in charge of building and inspecting airport runways. He would no doubt have come into contact with Bowles, who was in charge of air traffic control--both men with offices in the same building in Fort Worth.

    Sabinal, coincidentally, where Birge grew up and where his father's siblings all lived, was where John Nance Garner's wife, Mariette "Ettie" Rheiner, was born in 1869. According to Ettie, she was taking a secretarial course in San Antonio when she met Garner on a train. They married as soon as she finished the course in 1895. His story was, with a big wink, that she was running for county judge, opposing him, so he married her to win the election.

    Was Cactus Jack, as Garner was nicknamed, as prickly as his name implies? Was he just an innocent curmudgeon? Only more research will tell. We do know he had power, but all we ever saw of it was just the tip of an iceberg. What lay beneath that icy peak?

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    In 1937 David Harold Byrd had his photograph published in numerous newspapers across the country in which he was depicted receiving a flag that had flown on both the North and South Poles, carried by George Hamilton Black, a Byrd-Frost employee who  in 1930 claimed that he had been a garage man from Brooklyn, New York when he went to work for Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, then planning his first Arctic exploration to the South Pole in 1929 with private funding. According to the Admiral's archived papers (Box 27 / Folder 1152), he had corresponded with G. H. Black as early as 1926, the same year he wrote to Van Lear Black, publisher of the Baltimore Sun and a close friend to Mr. and Mrs. J. Walter Lord, who had an office in the Maryland Trust Building in Baltimore.

    As stated in "Tale about a Tail Number (Part II)":
    Even though a photograph of D. H. Byrd appeared in numerous Texas newspapers in December 1932, showing him receiving a flag given him by his "cousin," Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr. of Virginia, genealogical records did not at first indicate there was any kinship between the two men. However, as I dug deeper into Byrd's family background, some amazing facts came to light.

    Black procured the ship for the Byrd expeditions and later went to work for Byrd-Frost Oil Co. in Texas. Records appear to show that Black was born in Massachusetts in 1896, moved to New York where he enlisted in the Navy in 1917 and served in the military from 1912-1962. [See George Hamilton Black's death certificate, 1965.]

    Numerous questions were continued to circle around in my mind:
    1. Was D.H. Byrd really closely related to Richard E. Byrd and Sen. Harry Byrd of Virginia?
    2. Was there any significance to the fact that D.H. Byrd was born in the same small town as John Nance Garner, the former Speaker of the House and Vice President under FDR 1932-41?
    3. Was there any significance to the fact that the family of Mac Wallace, former University of Texas student body president and convicted murderer of Douglas Kinser, came from this same area of Texas? Was Mac a tool of Byrd and Garner before becoming an assassin?
    We begin with Question 1.

    Texas Roots of Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr.

    The short answer is that they definitely were not first or second cousins on the Byrd side of the family. The closest possible link dates back to a common ancestor named John Bird, a London goldsmith, born in 1620. One genealogist says this ancestor had families by two different wives, one son being Andrew and another being William Evelyn Byrd. However, a different source says that D. H. Byrd descends from Andrew Bird/Byrd, son of a John Bird, allegedly born in Long Island, New York in 1631. This line migrated first to Raritan, New Jersey, where another Andrew was born in 1695. He married Madelene Jones in Chester County, Pennsylvania, another Andrew Bird was born in  and eventually to Augusta County, Virginia. Richard and Harry Byrd descend from John Bird whose son William Evelyn Byrd, arrived in Virginia.

    Nevertheless, Admiral Byrd, born in Maryland in 1888, did have a Texas-born father, Richard Evelyn Byrd, Sr., who was actually born in Austin, Texas, in 1860. That is a story in itself.

    Richard E. Byrd's Texan ancestor, Robert Jones Rivers
    Richard E. Byrd, Sr.'s father, William Byrd, had been born to an earlier Richard Evelyn Byrd and his wife, Anne Harrison, in Winchester, Virginia. William became a Confederate officer and lawyer, first attending the Old Winchester Academy, then graduating from the Virginia Military Institute, and finally having received a law degree from the University of Virginia.

    William Byrd, Texas Lawyer, with Political Connections

    Soon thereafter he went to Texas, where in 1853 he became the law partner of Thomas Scott Anderson of Austin. Anderson held the office of secretary of state under Governor Hardin R. Runnels until his defeated by Sam Houston in the election of 1859. Anderson saw to it that his law partner, William, was appointed treasurer for the City of Austin in 1856, only eleven years after the former Republic of Texas had become a state. In those days there were very few adults who were native Texans.

    Anderson's bro-in-law
    Byrd's partner, T. Scott Anderson married a widow, Mary Walker McNeill Harper, whose father, Angus McNeill, arrived in Texas from Natchez, Mississippi. There he met the famed Jim Bowie, who was destined to die in the Battle of the Alamo in 1836 as Texas began its revolution again Mexico. Angus McNeill sold a Massachusetts textile mill to Bowie before they all set off for Texas. McNeill appears to have been a trader in land claims and had also acquired a great deal of land in Texas through his partnership in Wilkinson, McNeil [sic] & Co. located in Shreveport, La. (See also American State Papers). Angus moved first to Houston in 1837 but eventually settled 70 miles to the west, around Eagle Lake in Colorado County, where he continued to engage in his former real estate speculation business. His son, Col. Harry C. McNeill, a West Point graduate, joined Tom Green’s Brigade of Texas Rangers.

    William Byrd married Jennie Rivers, daughter of Robert Jones Rivers, a lawyer in practice with former Virginian, William Jefferson Jones, an old friend of U.S. President James Monroe. After leaving Virginia, Rivers lived in Georgia, working for a newspaper owned by Mirabeau B. Lamar, who enticed him to Texas to run Lamar's campaign for President of the Republic of Texas. W.J. Jones served on the Supreme Court of the Republic of Texas, a job which disappeared in 1845 when Texas was annexed as a state in the Union. At that point Jones became a law partner of William Byrd's father-in-law, R.J. Rivers, who lived in Austin and Georgetown. In 1852 he moved to Columbus and later to Galveston County, in order to help promote the Galveston, Houston & Henderson Railroad at Virginia Point. After two foreclosures by bondholders, the railroad was absorbed by Jay Gould's empire.

    When the civil war began, Governor Edward Clark appointed Byrd Adjutant-General of Texas Troops. Clark had been lieutenant governor under Governor Sam Houston, who was forced to resign from office when he refused to take the Confederate oath. As lieutenant colonel in the 14th Texas infantry, Byrd commanded Fort DeRussy in Louisiana, and in March of 1864 was forced to surrender the fort to the Union army. He returned with his wife and children to Virginia after the war. while his superior officer, Edward Clark, and many other Southern Confederates fled to Mexico, led by Gen. Joseph O. Shelby of Missouri, and remained there until Emperor Maximilian was overthrown in 1867 by Benito Juarez.

    Jennie Rivers Byrd lived the remainder of her days in the East. Her father, who died in Georgetown, Texas in 1854, had known Sam Houston and his children, one of whom exuded praise for his wit and eloquence. Jennie's two brothers were killed in the civil war, and a sister married and moved to South Texas.

    We will explore the other questions set out above in upcoming posts.

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    In a previous post we discussed D.H. Byrd's claim that he was a cousin of Admiral Richard Byrd, Jr., the Polar explorer of the 1930's and made only a possible connection to a common ancestor 300 years or so earlier. Admiral Byrd's line of descent seems to have no other common links to the line from which D.H. Byrd stemmed. D. H. Byrd's heritage is traced below from his ancestor Andrew down to Abraham Ruddell Byrd, who died in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, in 1857:

    To Cape Girardeau, Mo. in 1799
    D.H.'s branch of Byrds arrived in Missouri in 1797, before that territory (then called Upper Louisiana) became part of the Louisiana Purchase. Amos and Sarah Ruddell Byrd were progenitors of the clan which had started out in disputed territory of the Watauga Valley near the Proclamation Line of 1763. Heading west, they crossed the line into what is now Knox County, Tennessee and settled there long enough for three of Amos' sons to find wives among a family named Gillespie. Amos' family, including Stephen and Abraham, were born in Knox County 1768 and 1772, respectively. They remained there until almost the end of the century before the entire family headed west for the Spanish territory. They acquired land grants from Spain near what was to become Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.

    Unfortunately for the settlers, however, in 1800 Spain ceded the land to France shortly after the Byrds arrived there, so they were forced to prove the validity of their land grants after the United States purchased the land from Napoleon in 1803.

    Author Louis Houck, 1908, page 185
    We are told that the Byrd men became prominent in the government of the area--Amos as a judge, Abraham and Stephen as colonels in military regiments. Amos and Sarah died in 1818. Sarah's maiden name, however, would continue to be passed down to descendants, including D.H. Byrd's eldest brother, Ruddell Jones Byrd (called R.J., or Leo), who was born in 1888.

    Stephen died in 1830, and his brother, Abraham Byrd, remained in Missouri until his death in 1857. Abraham had a son born in 1815, whom he named Stephen, and it is through that ancestor that D. H. Byrd springs.

    From Missouri to Texas after 1900

    Continuation of D.H. Byrd ancestry, indicating his mother's family link to John Nance Garner. Click to enlarge.
    Stephen Byrd II married Nancy Moore in 1844 and farmed his land in Missouri until his death occurred in 1866, leaving their two youngest sons--Abraham (born 1852) and Edward (born 1854) --along with some daughters, as orphans, their mother having died in 1861. Edward was then only 12, but he had his oldest brother, William, to look after him.

    William Charles Byrd (born 1845) married Mary Jane Evans at the age of 23, just as the civil war was waning. Three of his sons relocated after 1900 to the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, later enticing their parents to move to this promised vegetable-growing  paradise in Dimmit County at Winter Haven, situated between Crystal City and Carrizo Springs (Zavala County), just above the border with Mexico.What could have possessed them to move to that part of Texas at that particular time?

    Most likely it was a railroad advertisement that prompted the move, such as this one which appeared in 1907:

    Herbert Hurd of Kansas City, Mo. was promoting his Texas lands near South Padre Island that year from his office in the original Union Depot (built in 1878 and demolished in 1915), by advertising in magazines such as the Western Fuit-grower. He gave prospective purchasers a ride from Kansas City on his private railway car parked at Union Depot to view the land which would later become a citrus paradise. Real estate all over the region had been skyrocketing in price ever since the railroads arrived in the most southern regions of Texas.

    At some point around 1901, Ed Byrd moved from Detroit, Texas to Ardmore, Oklahoma--which at that time was still part of the Indian Territory, having been opened up in the 1880's to homesteaders. The local newspaper in the latter city declared on June 13, 1901:
    Ed Byrd, Bob Easley and F. C. Dollins [Ed and F.C. were married to Easley sisters] from Detroit. Texas, are prospecting in the city.
    On October 10, 1905 an item appeared in the Ardmore, Oklahoma Ardmoreite:
    A. R. Byrd and William Byrd of Jackson, Mo., accompanied by their nephew, E. R. Byrd of St. Louis, have been in the city the guests of their brother, Ed Byrd. These gentlemen have made considerable investments here and have gone to West Texas to see about their business interests there.
    S.A., Uvalde & Gulf RR, 1918
    We learn of their investments in West Texas from an item that appeared in the San Atonio press in 1918 (see clipping at left).

    Three Byrd men (A.R., William, Jr., and E.R. Byrd) in 1918 were directors of a short line that became part of the Missouri Pacific in 1925--the San Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf Railroad. Two years earlier directors and officers of this railroad, with offices in San Antonio, were listed on page 481 of the 1916 Official Railway Equipment Register. The preceding page shows officials of four other Gulf Coast Lines. Then at page 482 another Gulf Coast Line branch is shown--the St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, with offices in Kingsville, Texas.

    Two of the Byrds' fellow directors--Buckingham and Groos--were real estate promoters and were mentioned in a book by Beatriz de la Garza, A Law for the Lion: A Tale of Crime and Injustice in the Borderlands, published in 2009. De la Garza describes Crystal City as being in 1917 a "modern, 'planned community,' barely ten years old." It was one of the "new towns, created out of the old ranches, the Cross S:
    See also a 1910 ad  and 1911 ad for Cross S ranch lands.
    The International and Great Northern railroad, part of the Gould system, in 1906 had begun building a 45-mile extension in Southwest Texas, from Carrizo Springs to Artesia, through the heart of the "Bermuda onion belt." This railroad (sometimes called the Artesian Belt) went into receivership in 1914, possibly a result of overextending itself into less populated areas with little traffic. Thus these uncles and cousins of D. Harold Byrd, while young Harry was still in short pants, were making inroads into an industrial network of railroad tycoons who would later play politics as though it were an untuned violin.

    We will pick up there in the next post.

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    Beginning in late 1978, the Drug Enforcement Agency had begun an investigation under the new federal Continuing Criminal Enterprise statute--21 U.S.C. § 848(d) (1976). The target was a marijuana smuggling ring headed by Thomas E. Long of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Eighteen other men from various locations in the United States and the Bahamas would eventually be named as part of the conspiracy to import multi-ton quantities from Colombia and Jamaica, announced by Assistant U.S. Attorney Charles D. Sheehy of the U.S. Attorney's Office in Pittsburgh. Some of those involved were arrested and prosecuted, but others were never captured. As reported in the appeal on the forfeiture proceeding case (654 F.2d 911):
    Long and eight co-defendants have departed for parts unknown and are presently fugitives. Eight other co-defendants pled guilty to the indictment that named Long the manager of an illicit drug enterprise. They were sentenced in the Western District of Pennsylvania, on March 2, 1981. One defendant was acquitted of all charges in a non-jury trial and the final defendant was found guilty by a jury and sentenced on March 2, 1981. United States v. Long, et al., 88 F.R.D. 701 (W.D.Pa.1981) (Ziegler, J.)
    Before Long fled the court's jurisdiction, his attorneys, Irwin G. Lichter and James Arnkoff, required him to pay off some previously incurred legal fees still outstanding, and agreed to settle for transfer of title to an airplane Long had used in his smuggling operations, a Beechcraft Baron aircraft, 58 T.C., Serial No. T.K.-44. Arnkoff received the bill of sale in the Bahamas from Anthony Bowe of Columbus Trust Ltd.and registered the sale from Circleville Holdings Inc., Long's Florida corporation, on October 22, 1979, about seven months before the grand jury returned the indictment against Long. Bowe also was a fugitive. Circleville had been incorporated by Lance Eisenberg, an attorney at 1401 Brickell Ave., Suite 1101 in Miami.

    Eisenberg would subsequently become a target for three other grand juries investigating his money laundering activities in connection with other drug rings in Houston, Texas; Gainesville, Georgia; and in Charleston, West Virginia--all of which used the Columbus Trust bank in Nassau, formerly controlled by Robert Vesco.


    Robert Vesco
    NASSAU, the Bahamas— Behind the scenes in at least four Federal grand jury investigations into suspected money laundering and narcotics trafficking by Americans has been a Bahamian bank in which Robert L. Vesco, the financier who is now a fugitive, had financial interests.
    [Editor's note: Robert Vesco was born in 1935. His father Donald Vesco worked in Detroit as a metal finisher in the auto industry but eventually returned to Ohio to work at Trabon Engineering in Solon, Ohio as a supervisor, a coal mining part of Ohio near where Donald Vesco's Italian-immigrant parents (Martino and Parina) had settled in 1904--midway between Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburgh.
    The bank is the Columbus Trust Company Ltd., organized in 1969 and closed this spring [1983] after Bahamian officials voided its license without explaining. So far the investigations have produced the following results:
    • In 1980 Anthony Bowe, a former bank official, reportedly now a fugitive, was indicted on drug charges in Pittsburgh.
    • In 1981 Lance Eisenberg, a lawyer who represented the bank, was indicted by a Houston grand jury in a tax evasion case.
    Chester pleaded not guilty two years before death.
    • Early this year, Mr. Eisenberg was indicted on tax charges by a grand jury in Charleston, W.Va.
    • Early this month Mr. Eisenberg and 11 other people, including Tilton Lamar Chester Jr., a business associate of the bank's president, were among 11 people indicted on narcotics trafficking and tax evasion charges by a Federal grand jury in Gainesville, Ga.
    Mr. Eisenberg and Mr. Chester have pleaded not guilty in the cases.

    A Continuing Investigation
    The grand juries have been part of a continuing Federal investigation into suspected violations of American tax and narcotics laws by United States citizens who take advantage both of the Bahamas' strict bank secrecy laws and a geographical location that makes it an ideal drug transfer point. Prime Minister Lynden O. Pindling and Kendal W. Nottage, the Minister for Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs and one of the most influential members of the Pindling Government, have each owned 2.5 percent of stock in Columbus Trust since 1970. Both men said they had taken no role in the way the bank conducted its business. 

    Mr. Nottage said in a recent telephone interview that if Columbus Trust was making money from the laundering of drug money, ''I didn't earn anything from it and certainly I didn't know.'' 

    Money laundering is the transferring of funds through a number of bank accounts in an attempt to conceal the money's origin. It is often a means to evade the payment of taxes. 

    Mr. Nottage, whose financial disclosure documents show him to be a multi- millionaire, said his association with Columbus Trust dated to the time when he was a lawyer in private practice and was asked to handle the legal work of organizing the bank and obtaining a license for it from the Bahamian Government. 

    As partial payment for his services, Mr. Nottage said, he received 5,000 shares of Columbus Trust stock, which in 1970 were valued at $1 a share. Mr. Nottage said he had just purchased Mr. Pindling's law practice and, in a gesture of gratitude, advised Mr. Pindling to purchase 5,000 shares for himself. Mr. Pindling agreed and paid Mr. Nottage $1 a share. Mr. Nottage said he had since held these shares in trust for Mr. Pindling. 

    Bank Is Being Liquidated
    According to a spokesman for Touche Ross & Company, which is now handling the liquidation of Columbus Trust, the trust company managed $50 million to $100 million for more than 200 client companies. Mr. Nottage said he and Mr. Pindling decided to sell their Columbus Trust shares last year, after newspaper articles here and in the United States cast clouds over some of the bank's business dealings. 

    Mr. Nottage said he arranged with Donald B. Aberle, one of the bank's founders and since 1973 its president and largest shareholder, to buy the 10,000 shares he held at $3 a share. The purchase was approved by the Central Bank early this year, he said, but the sale was never consummated. The Central Bank is the governing agency for bank and trust companies. 

    The ties between Robert Vesco and Columbus Trust are obscured by strict bank secrecy laws in the Bahamas, but court documents, Congressional testimony, and interviews with bank shareholders and clients, as well as Bahamian and American authorities, provide this sequence of events: 
    • Columbus Trust was formed by Mr. Aberle, a Bahamian citizen born in Australia, and by Denys Dobbie, an accountant, who at the outset had the controlling interest with 120,000 shares. Mr. Nottage and Mr. Pindling acquired their shares in 1970. 
      Sale to Butler's Bank
      • By the end of 1971, according to the Columbus Trust annual statement to the Bahamas Registrar General's Office, the Dobbie shares and control of Columbus Trust had been sold to Butler's Bank, Ltd., of Nassau.
      • It was Butler's Bank, according to published news accounts and investigations by the Securities and Exchange Commission, that in 1970 vouched for Mr. Vesco's bailout plan to gain control of Investors Overseas Services, the Swiss-based mutual fund group that he was later accused of bilking of $224 million.
      • In 1971 Mr. Vesco acquired control of Butler's Bank through International Bancorp, one of a number of companies American and Bahamian officials believe he used to shift funds from Investors Overseas Services to the Bahamas. International Bancorp had purchased Bahamas Commonwealth Bank, which listed as its sole assets the loan and investment portfolio of Butler's Bank. Eventually, Butler's Bank was absorbed by Bahamas Commonwealth. 
      Note: International Bancorp Ltd (IBL) was sued by the SEC in 1972.
        ''At the time Commonwealth was formed and was under Mr. Vesco's control, there was a certain category of persons that had difficulty borrowing from the traditional banks,'' said Paul Adderley, the Bahamian Attorney General and Minister for External Affairs.

        ''He did lend more liberally to black Bahamians at the time, a high percentage of whom were members of the Progressive Liberal Party.'' Mr. Adderley also noted that in the early 1970s nearly all politically active blacks in the Bahamas were members of the party. 

        Reasoning on His Actions
        ''He was still a man of good reputation at the time, but if you accept the premise that he was looking for a safe haven from the United States, he had this policy in an attempt to ingratiate himself with the Government,'' Mr. Adderley reasoned. 

        ''I don't know if the exercise was complete, however,'' he continued, noting that Mr. Vesco fled the Bahamas in December 1973, about four months after the United States initiated extradition proceedings against him. The whereabouts of Mr. Vesco, who returned here but fled again in 1981 after the Bahamas began deportation proceedings against him, have not been determined. 

        By June 1973, the control of Columbus Trust had passed to Mr. Aberle, who acquired a large block of the Butler's Bank shares. Mr. Aberle's shares, which increased to 127,498, gave him controlling interest. Mr. Nottage retained his shares but by then had resigned his position as the trust company's attorney of record to pursue a career in politics. 

        According to Bahamian bankers who asked that their names not be used, the association with Mr. Vesco's company cost Columbus Trust many of its customers after allegations of wrongdoing by Mr. Vesco began to circulate in the press. At this point, they said, a different group of clients came to the bank, including a number of people who, according to court records, were eventually investigated by the American authorities for alleged involvement in tax evasion schemes or drug trafficking or both.

        Mr. Bowe, a Bahamian citizen who at the time was director and secretary of Columbus Trust, was indicted by a Federal grand jury in 1980 in Pittsburgh as a co-conspirator in a drug smuggling operation. Mr. Bowe was charged with helping marijuana smugglers conceal their income through secret bank accounts in the Bahamas. He is now said to be a fugitive. 

        Miami Tax Lawyer Is Indicted
        Mr. Eisenberg, a Miami tax lawyer who has done legal work for Mr. Aberle and Columbus Trust, was indicted in 1981 by a Federal grand jury in Houston. The grand jury charged that Mr. Eisenberg helped two executives divert oil company revenues through Columbus Trust and another Bahamian company to evade Federal income taxes. One of the financial institutions used was International Business Transactions Ltd., a Bahamas company, of which Mr. Aberle was secretary, according to the indictment. Mr. Eisenberg is awaiting trial. 

        Mr. Eisenberg was indicted this year by a Federal grand jury in Charleston, W. Va,, in connection with an alleged scheme to defraud investors in a coal mining tax shelter program. Early this month he was indicted again, this time in Gainesville, Ga., with 11 other people on charges of smuggling marijuana and cocaine into the United States from a base in the Bahamas. Mr. Eisenberg has pleaded not guilty in all three cases. 

        One of the 12 indicted was Mr. Chester, a professional pilot who said he was an American drug informer and said he met Mr. Aberle through Mr. Eisenberg and later had some of his business ventures managed by Mr. Aberle's company. Mr. Chester, who lives in Georgia and on Darby Cay, a private Bahamas island, said in an interview here that Columbus Trust managed the accounts of businesses in which he has an interest. Mr. Chester pleaded not guilty. 

        Mr. Aberle could not be reached for comment. The telephone number listed for Columbus Trust in Nassau was not in service. Arthur Christy, a New York lawyer who has represented Mr. Aberle and Columbus Trust in the United States, said Mr. Aberle probably would not comment. In explanation, he cited Bahamian laws that restrict the disclosure of information about clients.
        Martin Baach, a Washington lawyer representing Mr. Eisenberg, said neither he nor Mr. Eisenberg would comment on the indictments against his client.

        See alsoOperation Lone Star
        Ex-Vesco Bank Figures in Drug Probe

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        Kris Millegan, 2000
        Daniel Hopsicker is an unsung hero whom I first met online, oh, maybe around 1997. He was one of the originals at Kris Millegan's chat room known as CIA-Drugs. I had been invited to join the exclusive list after being a member of Kris' first list called the "Conspiracy Theory Research" group. At CIA-Drugs I was mostly a lurker and would probably never have advanced beyond that stage had Catherine Fitts not descended upon my humble abode in August 2000 and enticed me into doing research with her on the background of Pug Winokur, a subject which I'll eventually get around to here.

        It is entirely possible Catherine may have been driving home from the CIA-Drugs Symposium in the early summer of 2000, which I had been afraid to attend. Preston Peet's article, complete with photos, written for High Times was entitled "Tracking The CIA Through Snowdrifts Of Drugs." Daniel presented his then recently completed video "Secret Heartbeat of America"inspired by the 1987 murder of two high school boys near Mena, Arkansas.

        The story of Barry Seal is still what motivates Daniel's life and his search for truth about that secret government apparatus that turns brave young patriots into drug lords. His commitment to telling history honestly is what makes him a hero in my book:

        The Secret History

        So, we'd stared into the Heart of Darkness. The Heart of Darkness had stared right back. Allegations and speculation are not proof. The truth, indeed, is still out there.
        But, for what little they're worth, here are my speculations about our journey into the secret history of our life and times.
        I don't believe that the 'drug smuggler' Billy Bob Bottoms is any more a drug smuggler than you or I. I believe him to be a paid representative of the government of the United States of America acting under the doctrines of plausible deniability. Why? Just a hunch. I liked him too much. He was a Navy pilot. His brother in law Barry Seal was a Special Op guy. These were our best and our bravest men.
        Here's what I would like to know. Who convinced men like Bear Bottoms that what they were doing was in the best interests of our country? What valid reasons might there be for our country's national security apparatus to be involved in the drug industry? Unless someone steps forward to make the argument for why this might be in our national interest, I'll wonder.
        And here's what I've learned. Some things we'll never know for sure. The opposition's way too good for that. For example, I'm convinced, to the depths of my heart, that there was a coup d'etat in the United States of America in 1963. That the bad guys never got caught. And that, chances are, they still run things.
        I will never, as long as I live, forget our 'Midnight ride to Mena,' seated beside tour guide and American hero Russell Welch. I'm convinced that what I saw there that night was a fully functional and operational secret government installation.
        By that, I do not mean a secret installation of the government of the United States of America. Unh-uh. What I believe I saw, and what I believe exists in Mena, Arkansastoday... is an installation of the secret government that runs the government of the United States of America.
        And here's what I suspect: that today, long after Oliver North has become nothing but a minor league radio DJ... and long after the contra war is just a fading memory of yet another minor league war, our government--yours and mine--is going about the lucrative worldwide business of drug production and distribution.
        It's the secret heartbeat of America. And it's as American as apple pie.

        Daniel Hopsicker
        January 29,1997
        All rights reserved.
        Daniel's videos and books are still available for purchase at Amazon.

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        Excerpt from The Breaking of a President 1974 - The Nixon Connection
        Marvin Miller, Compiler (Therapy Productions, Inc.©1975); LCCCN 7481547RwA6wcukvUVudAA5mKVn


        Secret Manipulations of President's Crony Still Pose Question Mark


        To those of an inquiring turn of mind, it may seem odd that these two men from such radically different milieusthe earnest young Quaker lawyer and politician from rural Southern California [Richard M. Nixon], and the self‑made Cuban‑American businessman on Florida's Gold Coast [Charles G. Rebozo]should have become friends in the first place, and soon become so close. Just who is Bebe Rebozo and what is his background?

        Charles Gregory Rebozo was born in Tampa, Florida, on November 17, 1912 — making him just three months older than Nixon. He was the youngest of nine children of a Havana cigar‑maker who had brought his family from Cuba to the United States. By the time the family moved fromTampa to Miami, little Charles had already been nicknamed "Bebe." A brother of his had trouble saying "baby" in English, and the nickname stuck. (Most people pronounce it "Be‑be"; the Nixons call him "Beeb."

        Bebe worked hard to help support his parents and eight brothers and sisters. At the age of 10 he was delivering newspapers, and at 12, in the fifth grade, was working after school as a chicken plucker, a job he detested because he hated to kill anything. While still in school he displayed his money‑wise nature by making his first real estate investment. He put $25 down on a lot in Canaveral, which he lost during the Depression when he couldn't keep up the payments.

        Small and slightly built, Rebozo learned as a boy, according to old friends, that the way to avoid being bullied by the bigger boys was to keep quiet, smile a lot, and be generally charming. He was a bright boy, and his dark good looks and charm won him the vote as "best‑looking boy" in his senior class of 1930 at Miami.
        Click to enlarge map.
        [Ed. Note: Rebozo's high school, the only one in Miami at the time, was located at 2450 SW 1st Street. Hoke Maroon, Syrian-born son of a local fruit vendor (Tony Maroon, who operated Northern Fruit Market on NE 1st Avenue), was a classmate. Miami High was also the alma mater of George Smathers, who grew up at 443 NE 39th Street, and of Phil Graham, whose family owned land northwest of Hialeah, just east of the Okeechobee Road, in some directories referred to as Pennsuco, Florida. Smathers and Graham went to college in Gainesville, later graduating from law school there in 1938, while Bebe had an assortment of jobs in Miami.]
        After graduation, while many of his wealthier classmates went on to college, Bebe got a job with Pan‑American Airways as one of their first 10 stewards. For a year he worked on the flying boats shuttling between Miami, the West Indies and Panama. It was during this time that he was secretly married at the age of 18 to a Miami girl named Clare Gunn. The marriage was annulled three years later. His young wife testified that they had never lived together, and that she had only married him because "he was very domineering, and kept insisting and insisting." Apparently this was a facet Bebe displayed only to his girl friend; to others he was charming and ingratiating.

        In 1931 Bebe quit his job with the airline and went to work pumping gasoline at a filling station in Miami. After a year he quit this and took a job chauffeuring tourists around the Gold Coast. Living frugally and saving his money, restless and always looking for a better chance, in 1935 he invested his savings in "Rebozo's Service Station and Auto Supplies," specializing in the sale of retreaded tires. With his modest profits, he kept investing in real estate, buying raw land around Miami at two or three dollars an acre. He was one of the few who foresaw the coming Florida land boom.

        With the outbreak of World War II, Rebozo went back to Pan‑American as a navigator on contract flights for the Army's Air Transport Command, and made about 100 ferry trips across the Atlantic to Africa and India. 
         [Editor's Note:  We found a document at Ancestry.com, which shows Bebe navigating a U.S. Army plane en route from Bermuda to LaGuardia. The pilot (captain) was Joe Ernest Fretwell, whose listing in the 1940 census shows him living in Coral Gables at the corner of Madrid Street and Milan Avenue. The house actually fronted on Milan, though designated as 1510 Madrid Street.
        Note the red car in previous photo. Click to enlarge.
        Five years later the Florida state census showed he had moved to 529 Minorca Ave. in Coral Gables (less than a mile and half from 1326 Milan, where Bebe had lived in 1940). This house was about the same distance south of the home of Bebe's brother-in-law, Harold Latham Barker. After the war Fretwell continued working as a pilot for Pan American Airlines, the airline for which Bebe had been employed before the war. His flight manifests in the late 1940's show he flew routes between Miami and Havana, Cuba, or Kingston, Jamaica. Prior to the war, records show Fretwell had been a  seaman on the steam tanker Malay that traveled for Marine Transport Lines between Tampico and Providence, R.I., in the early 1930's, and lived in San Diego by 1935. Is all that simply just an incredible coincidence?]

        While Bebe was away [on Pan Am flights], an elder brother ran the service station, which profited handsomely on the sudden wartime demand for retreaded tires. On his return from the airways, Bebe found himself in very good shape financially. The postwar land boom was already starting, and he concentrated on his real estate investments. At the same time, following his natural bent for advancement, the young Cuban‑American garageman began to move into Miami social circles, where his natural Latin charm and unobtrusive manners quickly opened doors for him‑with an assist from the rumors of his modest wealth and shrewd business instinct in real estate deals.

        In 1946 Bebe was quietly married for the second timecuriously enough, to the same girl he had married at 18, who was now a widow named Clare Gentry. This time they lived together for two years, then separated, and were divorced two years after that. "We just didn't make it," Rebozo said later in one of his rare interviews. "It happened when I was young." A friend commented: "He'll never let on, but the whole thing upset him very much. He isn't going to try it again."

         [Editor's Note: The 1940 census indicated that Clare's occupation was shown to be a pilot for the airways, but was struck through, while a faint trace in a different handwriting remains (after erasure?) showing her husband was the pilot. Her husband, James Norman Gentry, son of Stonewall Percy Gentry of Atlanta, had been stationed in Pensacola, Florida in 1935 as a student Naval Air pilot. According to one account, James Gentry met his death on July 31, 1944, at Funafuti Atoll in the Ellice Islands. The certificate of interment in 1950 at Arlington Cemetery, however, shows he served in the military only from July 1, 1935 until  November 5, 1936, and that he was in the Naval Reserve, unactivated.

        Could he possibly have been a member of some other elite secret squadron? We read part of an obituary about him in the Georgia Tech alumni magazine: "Captain James Norman Gentry, B.S. in Aero. Eng., 1934, Pan-American Airways, son of Mr. and Mrs. S. Percy Gentry of Atlanta, Ga., was one of a crew of six men to lose his life in a take-off crash at a Pacific base, according to a Navy Department announcement released on August second. Surviving Capt. Gentry, besides his parents, are his wife, the former Clare Gunn, of Miami, Fla., and their two sons, Donald Gunn Gentry, 4, and Warren Randolph Gentry, 6 months, now living at Los Altos, Cal. Capt. Gentry was well known in Atlanta, where he was graduated from Georgia School of Technology in 1934. A member of Chi Phi fraternity and the (Continued on Next Page)..." Donald obtained his master's degree at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California in 1969, writing a thesis in computer science.
        Clare Gunn had gone to high school with "Bebe" Rebozo and had in fact been secretly married to him in Fort Lauderdale when both were 18, a marriage later annulled when she claimed it was never consummated. (Source: Des Moines Register, Sunday, October 11, 1970. See below.)]
        Page one, click to enlarge print.
        Page Two, click to enlarge print.

        For some time after that the bachelor Bebe acquired a reputation as a bit of a ladies' man. He dated many of Florida's most beautiful women. One woman friend described him as a "suave man‑about‑town, with a lot of Old World charm—a fun guy." Increasingly in recent years, however, Bebe has cooled off the romantic image and devoted his energies to amassing money and being the President's best friend. He has indicated to his few intimates that he is very careful about his dates because he doesn't want to provoke any idle gossip that might reflect on the Nixon family. His latest steady date is Jane Ann Lucke, an attractive Miami divorcee who lives with her mother and two sons. Mrs. Lucke said in a recent interview that Bebe comes over to their house a couple of nights a week, and she and her mother give him piano lessons, or watch TV or play cards.

        To get back to the late 1940's, Bebe's real estate investments prospered and prospered. The word went around that he had the Midas touch. Some of his boyhood friends, back from the war, several of them wealthy, invested their money with him and on his advice, and brought their friends in. Bebe soon became the central figure and guiding genius of a group of well‑heeled, enthusiastic young men who poured their money into real estate speculation. They had their own private fun spots, in particular the old Cocolobo Cay Club on Adams Key, where they frolicked and entertained customers and associates.   
        [Editor's note: Adams Key is south of Elliott's Key, just east of Homestead Air Force Base. According to an AP feature writer, Adams Key, which is now part of Biscayne National Park and accessible only by small boat, was home to the Cocolobo Club... The Cocolobo Club was built by Carl Graham Fisher, who purchased the land in 1917. Fisher also owned Fisher Island, located just south of Miami Beach, several miles to the north of Adams Key. Among the original members of Cocolobo were two tire magnatesHarvey Firestone and Frank SeiberlingPresident Harding, and two major shareholder of General MotorsC.F. Kettering and T. Coleman Du Pont. Between 1920 and 1929 Firestone, Seiberling, and other millionaires such as J.C. Penney, Harvey Stutz (another car maker), and Albert Champion (spark plugs) built mansions on the three-mile stretch of Collins Avenue known as Millionaire's Row. But Firestone, for one, had died in 1938, and his Harbel Villa estate (4400 Collins Avenue) would be developed into the Hotel Fontainebleu. It was on Collins Avenue that Nixon's "friend"Tatem Wofford (or Tatum) owned two hotels.
        The 1936 Miami directory shows the Fishers living at 5812 Alton Road, across the street from La Gorce Golf Club. The dredging work he had done between the mainland and Miami Beach allowed the creation of several other islands between the south part of Miami Beach island, northwest of Fisher Islandone of which, Palm Island, became the haven of Al Capone in 1929 and later sold to Ralph Buglio, who died in 1952. After being financially devastated by the crash of the Florida land boom, Fisher sold Adams Key to Garfield Arthur Wood, the speedboat racer, who kept it as a private retreat until an investment group that included George Smathers, Thomas Havens Wakefield and Bebe Rebozo, acquired it. Wakefield's parents, Edwin and Sara, had sold real estate for many years out of the Ingraham Building in downtown Miami. In 1944 the office was in Room 1126, next door to the PanAm Airways, Latin American division; also down the hall was the Coral Gables Development, Everglades Asset Corp. and Silver Bluff Estates.
        Among Bebe's cronies in this group was his old school chum, Rep. George A. Smathers, an ambitious young Florida Democrat, a colleague and friend of Nixon's in the House of Representatives, though they were of opposite parties. Rebozo himself was a Democrat at that time, during the Truman administration; he didn't switch to the GOP till some years later, after Eisenhower and Nixon were elected. George Smathers and other associates realized the value of their real estate enterprises, in the middle of the land boom, of cementing good relations with powerful local and national politicians. So Bebe Rebozo found himself cast in a new role: that of entertaining Democratic bigwigs aboard his boat and at lush private spots along the Gold Coast. Among his guests from time to time were Senators Russell Long, Lyndon Johnson and Stuart Symington. The Bebe had come a long way since the days only a few years before when he sold retreaded tires.

        There is some question as to when Richard Nixon first met Charles Gregory Rebozo; and the very fact that there is such a question, leads to speculation that perhaps something is being covered up, for some reason still unknown. Nixon's official biographers, and the news feature stories of the early 70's, all agree that the two were introduced by George Smathers. Nixon and Smathers, who had enteredthe House together in 1947 from their separate States, were both elected Senators in 1950. Some say the meeting with Bebe took place in 1950 while they were campaigning for the November election-‑others that it was in early 1951, after they had been elected. At any rate, the story is that Nixon was worn out from overwork and nursing a cold, and his Democratic friend Smathers persuaded him to take a brief break in the sunshine of Florida. Several writers have stated that this was Nixon's first visit to Florida‑-that Smathers urged him to "take a look at our State."

        Smathers told Nixon to call Bebe Rebozo on his arrival in Miami, promising that Bebe would "show him a good time." Nixon wasn't necessarily in search of a good time; he had brought a lot of work along with him. He duly phoned Rebozo, then worked all day in his Key Biscayne Hotel room, while Bebe discreetly hovered in the background, not wanting to bother the new GOP Senator from California. The next day Bebe invited Nixon to take a cruise on his houseboat, and the weary Nixon accepted. The Senator spent most of his time aboard the boat working on papers he had brought with him. "I doubt if I exchanged half a dozen words with the guy," Rebozo later recalled. However, on his return to Washington, Nixon wrote Bebe a warm letter of thanks, promising to visit Florida soon again, and their friendship was begun.

        That is the officially approved account of how the oddly‑assorted pair first met‑approved by Nixon and Rebozo, with a discrepancy only regarding the date in various accounts. However, investigative reporter Jeff Gerth wrote recently in Penthouse magazine that he was informed in the summer of 1972 by an ex‑FBI agent, John Madala ["In 1943, Madala became the Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the Miami FBI Office and left the Bureau in 1946 to begin a new career as Security Director at various Florida racetracks, and tracks in Illinois....At the time of his death he was Security Chief at the Calder Race track and resided in Coral Gables, Fla.," as quoted from  Historical GMen], that Nixon, as a Congressman, made a number of pleasure excursions to Florida in the late '40s. According to Gerth, quoting Madala, Nixon went fishing first with Tatum [sic] "Chubby" Wofford, a Florida hotel owner and real estate speculator, and later with Bebe Rebozo—at least a couple of years before 1950. Madala said the arrangements for some of Nixon's visits had been made by Richard Danner, an automobile dealer who was city manager of Miami from 1946 until 1948, when he was dismissed in a dispute over gangland control of the police force. Danner and Gerth's informant, Madala, had worked together in the Miami FBI office in the 1940's. Danner later joined the Howard Hughes organization and became head of the Sands Casino in Las Vegas.

        Jeff Gerth went on to state that Richard Danner later in 1972, in an interview in his plush Las Vegas office, confirmed Madala's story of Nixon's visits to Florida in the 1940's. He recalled one particular visit in 1948. According to his story, George Smathers, who had introduced Danner to Nixon in Washington in 1947, called from Washington to tell Danner, in Miami, that Dick, who was involved in prosecuting the Alger Hiss case, was on the verge of a breakdown and needed a rest. Danner agreed to take care of Nixon in Miami; Smathers put him aboard the train, and Danner met him in Miami. According to Danner's account, after the ailing Senator [Nixon] had spent a week in the sun at Vero Beach, Danner took him to an osteopath in Miami. From the doctor's office Danner called Bebe Rebozo, who came over in his boat, and the three men went sailing together.

        Danner confirmed Madala's information that Nixon's first Florida yachting companion, before he became chummy with Rebozo, was Chubby Wofford. But Wofford had some pressing personal problems at that time, and shortly moved to Georgia; it was then that Rebozo took over as Nixon's sea‑going host. Jeff Gerth noted that Wofford's Miami hotel was named in the celebrated Senate hearings of the Kefauver Committee on Organized Crime in 1950‑51. It was testified that the Wofford Hotel was headquarters for crime syndicate figures from New York, who owned an interest in the hotel. The Kefauver Committee probed deeply into the operations of organized crime in Florida, with known gangsters working hand‑in‑glove with public officials. Abe Allenberg, the syndicate's Miami representative, was a friend and former employer of Richard Danner.

        Danner is currently a principal figure in the investigation of the mysterious $100,000 donation to Nixon by Howard Hughes; it was Danner who delivered the money to Bebe Rebozo in two installments of $50,000 each, either in 1969 and 1970, or in mid‑70; there is a question about the dates.

        Jeff Gerth in his Penthouse article revealed further that Danner in 1952 accompanied Nixon on a hasty visit to a casino in Cuba, operated by the syndicate; and he stated that Danner got his lucrative job as head of the Sands in Las Vegas due to his closeness to Nixon.

        Winding up our scrutiny of Nixon's visits to Florida in the 1940's, we may note that it has been reported that Nixon visited the Sunshine State as early as 1942, on government business, when he was a young lawyer working for the wartime Office of Emergency Management in Washington. There is no indication whether he met Bebe Rebozo at that time; probably not, since the young tire dealer was with the Air Transport Command during most of the war.

        (....to be continued in next post.)

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        The metaphor of Bebe as a "bagman," as used in The Breaking of a President 1974The Nixon Connection (see below and in our previous post), helps us to see this Nixon confidante as a cutout set up to courier money to the front man in power from the 1968 election until his disgraceful removal from office in 1974. The only question is, "Who supplied that money?" The answer that emerges from research is that he was working for America's central banking empirethe Federal Reserve Systemwhich controls the dollar currency. Exploring Bebe's personal relationships helps elucidate how he first came to be in that role.

        As we explored in the previous excerpt, Bebe Rebozo and Clare Margaret Gunn were classmates at Miami High School before Bebe graduated in 1930. They  sneaked off to Fort Lauderdale during Clare’s senior year and were secretly married July 31, 1931. Writing in a style characteristic of Kitty Kelley, Clay Drewry Blair, Jr., disclosed this intriguing tidbit of information in his feature article called “Bebe Rebozo’s Life Story,” which was serialized in newspapers in 1970 (posted previously at QJ).

        Clay Blair, who dealt routinely with subjects like atomic submarine warfare or the life of Admiral Rickover, even wrote a biography of James Earl Ray published only a year before  astounding readers with Rebozo's secret romance. Blair claimed that Clare wanted the marriage kept secret because her parents lived in "comfortable circumstances, many notches up the social ladder from Bebe." That conclusion on Blair's part was erroneous in several respects.

        Gunn Family Circumstances Far from 'Comfortable'

        The fact is that John and Nellie (Ellen) Gunn actually divorced around 1929, making Clare's living situation quite unstable. The real estate and construction boom had all but disappeared in the wake of Miami's 1926 hurricane, making it difficult for her father to find enough work to support his family. The depression further deepened with the 1929 stock market crash. These events took a heavy toll on the Gunns. Clare's older brother Donald, who was a friend of Bebe's, disappears from public records after 1932. 

        It did not take Nellie long to marry for a second time. Cornelius William Scully, an Irish Catholic from New Jersey, was a fireman who lived at 104 NE 56th Street, about a mile from the home in which Clare had lived with her parents (145 NW 61st), since moving to Miami from St. Louis in 1924. With Donald and Clare almost out of high school when their parents divorced, it is possible Clare married Bebe in 1931 in order to stay in the house next-door to their uncle Hugh Gunn without adult supervision. From available data we can surmise that the divorce, remarriage and consequent living arrangement was by no means a "comfortable" situation for Clare or her siblings at the time she agreed to undergo a secret marriage with Bebe. If nothing else, the marriage would, however, have given her (still legally a minor) the legal capacity to enter into a lease agreement.

        After the divorce their father lived in a room at 161 NW 52nd Street, a house rented by the Henry Semple family. Semple drove a truck for Gunn & Goll, a construction firm owned by Clare's uncle William in partnership with a war veteran named Otto H. Goll from Toledo. In 1933 her father  also went to work as Gunn & Goll's "caretaker." There was no other obvious relationship between John Gunn and Semple; however, John remained at this address for many years. Far from "comfortable," this situation was must have been downright embarrassing for young Clare.

        What is most intriguing about this company (Gunn & Goll) is that in the midst of economic recession, Otto Goll could afford to travel constantly, flying frequently to Cuba by seaplane. His flights which began in the 1930's continued into the next decade via Pan American Airways. Pan Am was, of course, the airline for which Bebe and Clare's husband, James Norman Gentry, were at one time employed. Bebe Rebozo's real link America's first international airline, which was so much in the news throughout the 1930's depression years, will take some time to explain.

        Clare worked as a steno in 1934.
        While Clare was secretly married to Bebe, her name showed up in Miami's 1933 city directory, indicating that she was employed at Progressive Investment Corporation, an entity with no listing in the directory. The following year's listing, however, indicates she lived with her mother and stepfather at Scully's house on 56th Street, while working as a stenographer. Her youngest brother, William P. Gunn, who may not have gotten along with his new stepfather, lived with their father in his rented room in the Semple home. By 1937, however, Clare had moved out on her own to 244 NW 52nd, where William P. joined her. This new living arrangement could not have lasted long, as Clare also married again in 1937, as we will explore subsequently.

        Clare's Employment

        Excerpt from The Scroll, 1942
        Though we find nothing to indicate who the principals were in Progressive Investment Corporation, it is easy to discern that her next job in 1934 for a statistical research firm called Ballinger & Taylor involved John Kenneth Ballinger, associate editor at the Miami Herald, and Frank O. Taylor, Jr., an accountant. 

        After Ballinger wrote, but was unable to get his book published, he teamed up with Taylor to write Florida bonds: a summary of the funded public debt of December 31, 1934. In 1936 he self-published his first book with the title  Miami Millions, only a year or two after Harvey O'Conner's Mellon's Millions hit bookstores. He may have thought the catchy title alone would have made his chronicle of unconnected tidbits of factual data, without the analysis which had made O'Conner's book worthwhile, a bestseller. The news item announcing his service in WWII in his alumni magazine (upper left) unfortunately mentioned the wrong book. Boom in Paradise had been published by T. H. Weigall in 1932, and can be read at the Everglades website.

        According to his 1980 obituary, Ballinger went into the Army Air Corps as a captain in 1942, coming out as a colonel before getting a law degree. While Clare worked for Ballinger a decade earlier, he and his wife lived at 637 Minorca Avenue in Coral Gables, only a few doors down from

        Where Was Bebe in 1934?

        Bebe's parents and working siblings, during his high school years, lived in Miami at 183 NW 34th Terrace, a mile to the south from the Gunns. Although Bebe was said by the book, Bebe the Bagman, to have quit his Pan Am job in 1931, Miami directory indicates in 1934 that he was still employed as a steward at Pan American Airways, only a few months after the airline's owner, Juan Trippe, had made the cover of Time magazine. The Rebozos moved in 1934 to 836 NW 33rd Avenue, still less than two miles from any of the homes where Clare lived, but in a sightly more upscale neighborhood than hers.

        According to Blair's unsourced Bebe the Bagman, Bebe had been among the first stewards hired by Pan Am but quit the job in 1931 to pump gas for a year, before he
        Page from 1934 Miami directory
        "took a job chauffeuring tourists around the Gold Coast. Living frugally and saving his money, restless and always looking for a better chance, in 1935 he invested his savings in 'Rebozo's Service Station and Auto Supplies,' specializing in the sale of retreaded tires." 
        Blair apparently borrowed that unattributed detail from a cover article, "President Nixon's Best Friend,"in the July 31, 1970 issue of Life Magazine under the byline of Colin Leinster, a Life writer/photographer who, in the late 1960s had been assigned both to Life's Hong Kong and Vietnam bureaus before his promotion to Assistant Editor in 1969. Leinster's  promotion came less than a year before his feature on Bebe hit the Luce-owned magazine (Henry R. Luce, Yale 1920, Skull and Bones).

        Were Blair and Leinster  unwittingly working for the same boss who was intent on pumping disinformation about Bebe's past into the mainstream media? A similar chronology of Bebe's life was, intriguingly, inserted into Anthony Summers'Arrogance of Power. We leave you to make your own conclusions after reading the following research with a questioning mind.

        QJ is disinclined to buy either the Blair or Leinster account simply because the 1934 directory listing (inset, upper right) indicates Bebe was still a steward in 1934. The goal of the disinformation attempt  was to minimize Bebe's role at Pan Am and maximize his connection to Smathers. Why? The Pan Am Airport looms large in QJ's view. Possibly a windmill; more likely a giant!

        Clare Gunn a/k/a Mrs. E. Vose Babcock, 1937-39

        Bebe graduated from Miami High in 1930 and Clare two years later, though she had been on schedule to finish in 1931. (Note: Both of them would have known George Smathers, 1931 MHS senior class president, who was named Outstanding Athlete of Dade County that year. Smathers was attending college and law school in Gainesville from 1932-38, some of those years with Phil Graham and Paul Helliwell, as QJ has previously noted.)

        While she worked for Kenneth Ballinger, Clare met E. Vose Babcock, Jr., the son of a lumber tycoon from Pittsburgh, who owned a large ranch in Charlotte and Lee Counties in western Florida, just to the south of Tampa. Today it is a three-hour drive from Miami along Interstate 75--but in the 1930's would possibly have taken much of the day. How and where Clare and Vose met may forever remain a mystery, along with the reason for their divorce two years later. We can only speculate about whether Bebe Rebozo had a hand in introducing them, possibly through his work at the Pan American airport based on Dinner Key. (Note: Other historic photographs can be viewed at Miami History website.

        Vose Babcock at left with his wealthy family
        We do know that Vose Babcock, Jr. had dropped out of Princeton after his second year and allegedly shunned his father's lumber business in 1932 in favor of raising cattle in the Fort Myers Beach area. He married Clare Gunn in 1937, three years after her marriage to Bebe was annulled. Mr. and Mrs. Babcock (Clare's name was misspelled as Claire) were listed in Fort Myers city directories for several years, and, although directories may have been slow to update details, something else seems amiss.

        A cowboy, marrying a stenographer may not have sat well within the family, if they were aware of his marriage, but it appears not to have been enough of a departure from family decorum to have threatened the scion's enormous trust fund, which appears to have remained intact, as we shall later see. The Babcocks were close associates of the same Mellon family who were the subject of the scathing rebuke of the Secretary of the Treasury during Prohibition and early depression years. 

        The title of the book, Mellon's Millions, likely served as a model for Ballinger's own book title, Miami Millions.

        As members of Pittsburgh's Duquesne Club, Union Club, Country Club, as well as the Oakmont Country Club, the Babcock sons were sent to prestigious Ivy League schoolswith Vose Jr. prepping at Choate before attending Princeton in the class of 1927, while the parents enjoyed the same social circle as the Mellon family in Pittsburgh. In fact,


        Part 2 of excerpt from  
        The Breaking of a President 1974 - The Nixon Connection
        Marvin Miller, Compiler (Therapy Productions, Inc.©1975); LCCCN
        BEBE THE BAGMAN (Continued)

        [Former FBI agent Richard] Danner has testified under oath that it was he rather than [George] Smathers who introduced Nixon to Rebozo; he estimated the date as "about 1950"; but in his interview with Gerth in September 1972, before the Watergate avalanche got really going, he was quite definite that it was in 1948. It seems as through there is a conspiracy, or at least some sort of tacit agreement between those concerned, to cover up and bury any activities of the future President in Florida in the 1940's. An educated guess is that it has to do with Nixon's links, as a young Congressman, with big‑time organized crime and gambling, which were notoriously entrenched in the Miami area at that time. Certainly Nixon's friends Danner and Wofford were deeply involved in this picture, and he must have known it. As for Rebozo, these men were his friends also. It may be noted that in 1968, when the Bebe was building his big shopping center in Miami's Cuban community, out of scores of construction firms available, he picked the one operated by "Big Al" Polizzi, a former Cleveland mobster. One way or another, it seems that the ambitious Senator‑and‑President‑to‑be was hobnobbing with some very dubious people indeed, and today Nixon prefers to cloud over that period in his life, for fear he will be tarred with the same brush.

        At any rate, Nixon did meet Bebe Rebozo in those days, and their peculiar friendship blossomed. One explanation by one of Nixon's aides is that both men were "the same methodical, hard‑working type"—their personalities appealed to each other, and they had many tastes in common. They both liked boating, golf and football. By the time Senator Nixon was elected Vice‑President in 1952, the oddly assorted pair were fast friends, and Nixon was a frequent visitor to the free‑wheeling Gold Coast with its yachting, partying set; a strange milieu for a Quaker boy from Whittier, California. On those visits he stayed at Bebe's house, sometimes bringing his family along, and they went cruising on Bebe's boat.

        While Nixon's political star was rising, Bebe Rebozo's fortunes were going up too. He was constantly expanding his real estate and financial dealings, and his Midas touch persisted. Was it a coincidence that he was a close crony of Nixon and other influential politicians? One Key Biscayne businessman recently told a Newsweek reporter with blunt candor:  "Rebozo is a fumbling tire salesman. He's not really that good at business. He would never have made it without political clout." And political clout the ingratiating Cuban-American certainly had. He had hitched his wagon to the right star, put his money on the right horse.

        The friendship was cemented during the years of Nixon's vice‑presidency from 1953 through 1960, when Nixon made numerous visits to Florida, and Bebe to Washington. It was during that period, of which not too many details are known, that the Bebe became Nixon's "shadow," his closest confidant. Their association was not spotlighted at that time; no one much cared who the Vice‑President's friends might be.

        Bebe Rebozo was the only "outsider" sticking closely to the Nixon family on election night in 1960, when Nixon lost the presidential race to John F. Kennedy. When Nixon ran for Governor of California in 1962, the Bebe actually moved from Florida to California—"at some financial sacrifice," according to friendsto help Dick unofficially in his campaign, which was marked by a phony Red smear and other "dirty tricks" on Nixon's part. Rebozo was standing at Nixon's side when he glumly told newsmen, after his resounding defeat by Governor Edmund G. Brown, that he was retiring from politics: "You won't have Nixon to kick around any more!"

        It seemed that Nixon had lost his own political cloutor had he? Bebe remained his close friend when the Nixons moved to New York City and Dick went into a lucrative law practice. There is reason to believe that he very soon reconsidered his decision to quit politics, and used his law practice to solidify his connections with big business and high finance, with his eye still on the Big Chance. In 1964 Nixon hit the campaign trail for Barry Goldwater, and was back once more in the public eye.

        In 1965 Bebe Rebozo was with Dick and Pat when they celebrated their silver wedding anniversary in Mexico; in 1966 he went around the world with the future President; in 1967 Nixon and Rebozo traveled to South America together. When Nixon definitely decided to make a second try for the presidency in 1968, Rebozo originally was against the idea, according to mutual friends. Says one: "Bebe was afraid of the impact another major defeat would have on his friend." But as it turned out, Bebe's faithfulness paid off, and the rest is history. Incidentally, it was not until late 1968 that the cautious Bebe changed his registration from Democrat to Republican.

        During those same 1960's, while he was following Nixon around, Rebozo was steadily building up his own fortune in Florida, to his present worth of approximately $3 million. He founded his own bank, the Key Biscayne Bank, of which he has been president and chairman since 1964. The one‑story modern bank building is complete with American flags, pictures of Richard Nixon and even a smiling bust of the President. The Rebozo bank enjoys a monopoly position on wealthy Key Biscayne; repeated attempts by rival financial groups to open another bank have been turned down by the Comptroller of the Currency, despite favorable recommendations by a federal field examiner.

        Another instance of the Bebe's good luck in dealing with the federal government was the favored treatment he received from the Small Business Administration in the early 1960's. According to several Miami businessmen, it was the intercession of Senator Smathers and the Bebe's well‑known friendship with Nixon, that enabled him to use SBA money to help him acquire the prosperous Monroe Abstract and Title Co. of Key West, and to finance a shopping center and a string of laundromats in Miami.

        Rebozo's Midas touch is largely responsible for the building of Nixon's personal fortune. In a financial statement before the 1968 election, Nixon placed his gross assets at $800,000 and his liabilities at $300,000. He said $400,000 of his assets stemmed from Florida real estate investments. Among other deals, in 1962 Nixon on Rebozo's advice had bought 185,891 shares of stock in the Fisher's Island resort community being developed by Rebozo off the tip of Miami Beach. He paid one dollar per share. Development plans were stalled, and after the 1968 election, to avoid conflict of interest with federal projects in the area, Nixon sold his stock back to Rebozo's holding company at two dollars a share, for a neat profit of $175,000.

        In 1967, at Bebe's urging, Nixon was persuaded to pose for a publicity picture for a subdivision being developed by Don Berg on Key Biscayne. In return for this favor, which paid off handsomely by placing Key Biscayne in the national limelight, Berg sold Nixon two choice lots for a bargain price of $53,100. Five years later Nixon sold the lots to William E. Griffin, an attorney for the President's other millionaire chum, Robert H. Abplanalp the Aerosol magnate, for $150,000. This was the devious deal spotlighted in the Congressional investigation of Nixon's personal finances: Nixon's daughter Tricia. had loaned her father $20,000 of the purchase price; when the loan was repaid and she was given part of the profit, her share was transferred to Bebe Rebozo's account as a loan to him.

        It was Bebe the Magnificent who shortly after Nixon was elected to the presidency, put together almost single‑handedly the Southern White House retreat on Key Biscayne's opulent Bay Lane, where Rebozo has lived for years [490 Bay Lane]. The deal involved a five‑house compound. Rebozo first arranged for Nixon to buy Senator Smathers' house, next‑door to his own, plus another house. Robert Abplanalp bought another house and leased it back to the Secret Service at a handsome figure for Nixon's two terms. Then a complex deal was worked out whereby a stockholder in Rebozo's bank bought the fifth and last house, and leased it back to the White House as a communications center.

        Columnist Jack Anderson revealed only last May that back in 1969, while Bebe Rebozo was already collecting secret cash contributions for Nixon's 1972 re‑election campaign, he was also paying some of the President's bills. Anderson reported that he had traced to Rebozo's personal account an $11,978 check, which went to pay for electrical, air‑conditioning, and painting work on Nixon's home in Bay Lane. He said he was also informed that Rebozo paid for a swimming pool, a pool table, and architectural services for the President. The check for $11,978, signed by Rebozo, was dated August 6, 1969. On August 7th another check for $11,307, this time a cashier's check drawn on Rebozo's bank and bearing Nixon's name as remitter although he was not in Florida at the time, was delivered to the same construction company; and on October 9th the company received payment for a $6299 bill it ad submitted to Rebozo for air‑conditioning work on another of Nixon's Key Biscayne houses. Columnist Anderson noted that these payments were made just about the time the first $50,000 of the mysterious Howard Hughes $100,000 contribution was reported to have been delivered to Rebozo by Richard Danner, ostensibly to be used for campaign purposes. As one Senate investigator recently complained: "Rebozo's affairs are so commingled with Nixon's, that we cannot separate them."

        Bebe Rebozo was also directly involved in the planning and purchase of Nixon's Western White House at San Clemente, California. In 1969, when it seemed Nixon might have difficulty in meeting the mortgage payments on the $1.5 million, 29‑acre estate, Rebozo and Abplanalp formed an investment company and bought all but 5.9 of the seaside acreage for $1,249,000. Rebozo also bought a home for Julie Nixon Eisenhower and her husband David in Bethesda, Maryland.

        This brings us into the 1970's, when Bebe Rebozo's friendship with Nixon first began to be publicized and spotlighted by the media, to the acute discomfort of the publicity‑shy Cuban‑American banker. Speculation arose as to the self‑effacing Bebe's exact role in the President's life, both official and personal. U.S. News & World Report posed the question: "Is he a policy‑shaping adviser reminiscent of Colonel House of the Woodrow Wilson era? Or is he just a non‑political friend to a man whooutwardly at leasthas few close friendships?" 

        Reporters dug into the association of the two men; mutual friends were interviewed; the question was not fully answered, but the best information seemed to be that Rebozo was simply a close friend who refrained from dabbling in politicsthough no one denied that he was Nixon's personal financial adviser. The President enjoyed relaxing in Bebe's company. It was duly noted that Bebe had profited in a business way by being known as the President's pal, just as Nixon's personal fortunes had prospered on Bebe's shrewd advice. One hand washed the other. This was before Watergate, before the revelation of Bebe's role as a bagman for secret political funds, and of the pair's joint connection with organized crime figures.

        A feature story in Life magazine in 1970 [Colin Leinster's byline] pointed up Rebozo's touchiness about anyone trying to capitalize on his relationship to Nixon. Shortly after the 1968 election, Life reported, Rebozo took a telephone call at the yacht club, and came back to the table fuming. "Son of a bitch!" he said. "That was a guy I haven't seen since high school. Now he wants me to help him out in a deal by putting in a good word with the President!" And one White House aide said not long ago: "Bebe would endure having his nails pulled out one by one, rather than reveal anything but commonplaces about the President."

        Rebozo himself said solemnly, in a rare interview with U.S. News in 1971: "Naturally, the justification for my high regard for the President should be apparent to everyone by now. It is my feeling that, if he were given credit for just a fraction of his accomplishments, he would already be heralded as one of the all‑time great Presidents. I am sure history will recognize him accordingly." And a Nixon associate commented: "Mr. Rebozo's main role is to take some of the pressure off the President. Bebe is the kind of friend all of us want and need—a person who likes us for ourselves, and is not with us to use us."

        Pat Nixon told interviewers that "the President is comfortable with Beeb." Close friends said she had a sister‑like affection for the ingratiating banker, and the two Nixon daughters looked upon him as a favorite uncle. The President himself described Rebozo as "a great guy."

        In those "innocent" pre‑Watergate years of 1970‑71—while the illegal undercover machinations to re‑elect the President in '72 were going ahead full steam and the top‑secret Plumbers Squad was hard at work with its break‑ins, bugging and espionage, a rash of news photos appeared picturing Bebe Rebozo at happy family gatherings with the Nixons; entertaining them aboard his houseboat the Cocolobo (named after a tropical shrub); cooking steaming Spanish‑style picadillo for the Nixons on his backyard grill; playing golf with the President; escorting the Nixon daughters and their fiancés. There was even a picture of two pewter tankards engraved with the names of Nixon and Rebozo, still standing in a place of honor behind the bar in Key Biscayne's English Pub, where the two chums many years before had joined the exclusive Pewter Vessel Drinking Society. [Most of these photos appeared in the Life feature.]

        All this publicity was good for Nixon's image as a family man, a good fellow devoted to his friends. But Bebe Rebozo didn't like it; he dodged interviewers on general principles; the media then were publicizing good things about him and the President; but the day might come when they would stumble onto something bad, so it was best to discourage their prying into the Nixon‑Rebozo relationship. In standing by this attitude of shunning the limelight and keeping himself in the background, which some reporters called "the Howard Hughes syndrome," the Bebe was displaying prophetic vision. It wouldn't be long before their beautiful relationship would be tarnished by the Watergate disclosures.

        Bad Publicity
        Bebe Rebozo received his first bad publicity in September of 1970, when the New York Times and the Washington Post belatedly got onto the story of a lawsuit based on shady dealings that linked Rebozo and his fat little bank directly with organized crime, even withthat ugly wordthe Mafia.

        It had long been whispered in financial circles that there was something peculiar about the operations of the Key Biscayne Bank, with its limited assets and its policy of discouraging loans to ordinary customers. The bank, in which the President has his personal accounts, ranks at the bottom of the list of Florida banks in percentage of deposits loaned out to customers; yet the bank had lent large sums of money and handled accounts for officials of the syndicate-linked company that owns the Paradise Island Casino in the Bahamas. And now it was revealed that the Rebozo bank had loaned $195,000 to an Atlanta businessman on the security of 900 shares of IBM stock which it developed had been stolen by Mafia hoodlums. [Miami News in January 1974 disclosed that Seymour Alter borrowed money from Key Biscayne Bank, then set up a gift shop through which he apparently laundered money before selling the shop to a company controlled by Robert Vesco.]

        According to sworn testimony by Rebozo, the Atlanta man, one Charles L. Lewis, who apparently had no ties in the Miami area, applied for the loan in July of 1968, offering the IBM stock as collateral. Bebe said he "checked" on the stock and on Mr. Lewisincluding, interestingly enough, making a phone call to the President's brother F. Donald Nixon in Newport Beach, California. Apparently the light was green, and the mysterious Mr. Lewis got his $195,000.

        Some time later it was discovered that the stock had been stolen from E.F. Hutton & Company of New York by Mafia agents, allegedly for the express purpose of using it as collateral for the Florida loan. But Bebe couldn't return the stolen stock; it seems he had become suspicious of the loan at some point, and called it in. He said Lewis had told him to sell the stockwhich had increased in valueto cover the loan and Bebe did so.

        Meantime, before the whole story was known, Fidelity & Casualty Company of New York had covered Hutton for its loss of the stock, and in May of 1970 the insurance company sued Rebozo and his bank for $248,000 to reimburse the loss. The suit, filed in U.S. district Court in Miami, was not reported in the Florida or national pressat that time; perhaps its significance was not realized under all the legal verbiage, or perhaps there was a deliberate cover‑up to spare embarrassment to the President's chum. Rebozo asked dismissal on the grounds that he had not known the stock was stolen at the time he sold it. Dismissal was denied, and a pre‑trial conference was set for October.

        When the story finally broke that September, Washington Post reporter Ron Kessler stated in an exclusive story that Rebozo had sold the stock after an insurance investigator had informed him that it was stolen. The investigator had testified to this under oath in a pre‑trial deposition, and he had written a report to the company on his interview with Bebe in which he stated: "This would appear to me to be a shady deal, and I suspect that Mr. Rebozo was aware of this and did not want to become involved." Rebozo continued to deny that he had known the stock was stolen before he sold it; he specifically denied the insurance investigator's testimony.

        Lansky's laundry?
        The FBI meantime had been probing the original theft of the stock for more than a year, and eight Mafia figures were finally charged with the theft. Rebozo would have had to testify under oath in their trial; but he was spared this ordeal when in 1971 the Justice Department quietly settled the criminal case out of court. With equal lack of fanfare, the insurance company's lawsuit against Rebozo and his bank was "terminated" after a one‑day trial by U.S. District Judge James King. The judge, who had been appointed to the bench in Miami by Nixon in 1970, summarily cut off discussion of the methods normally used by banks to determine whether stock offered as collateral is actually owned by the loan applicant. Judge King, a former lawyer, it may be noted, had been a director of the Miami National Bank during the time when, as charged in a federal indictment, mob kingpin Meyer Lansky was using the bank to hide and transfer illegal funds.

        That was the end of the murky case of the stolen IBM stockor not quite the end. Rebozo, in righteous indignation over the besmirching of his name and that of his opulent little bank, filed a $10 million libel suit against the Washington Post. The suit is still pending in Miami Federal Court; a Post motion to transfer it to Washington was denied, and the suit has dragged on. [Note: Sarasota Herald-Tribunereprinted a Newsday story in October 1971 about the events and mentioning the lawsuit in which E.F. Hutton's insurance company sued the Key Biscayne Bank. According to one of two appeals cases, Bebe was called by the insurance company as an adverse witness, (para 13).] In retrospect, it certainly seems there was a deliberate cover‑up and playing down of the still unresolved case, and the fact remains that Rebozo's name, and that of the President's brother, were directly linked with syndicate crime.

        The picture was different in late October of 1973, when the mysterious Howard Hughes "campaign' contribution was revealed, and Bebe Rebozo was plumped right into the middle of the Watergate mess, in the role of Nixon's secret bagman for questionable funds. This time no cover‑up was possible; the self‑effacing Key Biscayne banker suddenly found himself in the full glare of the national limelight.

        The disclosure came as the Senate Watergate Committee was winding up its investigation of dirty political tricks and focusing its attention on Republican campaign financing. Senate investigators, following up persistent rumors that Howard Hughes was somehow involved in Watergate, finally made the connection: the eccentric billionaire had secretly sent $100,000 to Bebe Rebozo—at a time when Hughes was trying to iron out some anti‑trust problems with the Justice Department, involving his multi‑million‑dollar Las Vegas hotel and casino properties.

        Committee investigators inverviewed the flustered Rebozo for five hours, and further pieced the still somewhat obscure and contradictory story together from other sources. Rebozo told them the "campaign gift" was suggested by Richard Danner, who at that time was managing director of the Hughes‑owned Frontier Hotel, and delivered to him in two equal installments of cash, one in late 1969 and another in mid‑1970. According to Rebozo, Hughes intended the money to be used in Nixon's 1972 re‑election campaign. Danner confirmed the $100,000 gift, telling investigators he had delivered $50,000 in $100 bills to Bebe at San Clemente late in 1969, and another $50,000 to him at Rebozo's home in Key Biscayne in July of 1970. Danner said the money was a run‑of‑the‑mill political contribution, earmarked for the 1970 off‑year Republican Congressional campaigns; in this he contradicted Rebozo's statement that it was meant for the still‑distant 1972 campaign. And the bizarre fact was that Rebozo claimed the $100,000 had never been used; he said he had kept it in its original packages of $100 bills, in a safe‑deposit box in his bankand returned it in the spring of 1973. According to Rebozo, the money was returned to the Hughes organization by a roundabout route: he said he gave it to William Griffin, the attorney for Robert Abplanalp, Nixon's other millionaire friend. The reason for this was not made clear. Rebozo said he decided to return the money, after hearing that Robert Maheu, the deposed head of Hughes' Nevada gambling empire, had mentioned the $100,000 contribution in a deposition connected with Maheu's $17.5 million defamation of character lawsuit against Hughes in Los Angeles.

        Maheu reportedly said in his deposition that the money actually was intended to influence two pending federal cases involving the Hughes interests. Two such cases were decided in favor of Hughes, during the time in question: 
        • the Civil Aeronautics Board okayed the Hughes purchase of Air West, and 
        • the Justice Department cancelled an anti‑trust action seeking to prevent Hughes from acquiring additional gambling casinos in Las Vegas. 
        The Senate investigators began a full‑scale probe of these allegations. Another odd coincidence also came under investigation: 
        • the fact that at the exact time the second installment was delivered in July 1970, Rebozo and Abplanalp were concluding a phase of their deal to buy Nixon's San Clemente estate to ease his mortgage problems—a phase involving the purchase of 2.9 acres for exactly $100,000. 
        Rebozo denied that any of the Hughes money was used for this deal or for any other purpose; he said the funds lay idle in his safe‑deposit box for three years, without even earning interest.

        Following these disclosures, President Nixon at his press conference on October 27, 1973, declared that he felt Bebe Rebozo had shown "very good judgment" in holding the $100,000 Hughes contribution for three years, and finally returning it when it seemed that it might become embarrassing. Calling Rebozo a "totally honest man," the President said he trusted him implicitly. Nixon told reporters that he himself had not heard about the Hughes gift until early in 1973. Although it "might sound incredible to many people," Nixon said, he had a firm policy during campaigns, of not wanting to know about financial gifts till after the election.

        Bebe Rebozo's efforts at self‑effacement and dodging publicity no longer availed anything; he was now under the full spotlight of investigation by the press as well as by official probers. Senate investigators, subpoenaed the $100 bills and some of Bebe's financial records. In the wake of revelation of his handling of the Hughes gift, new details were unearthed about the operation of Rebozo's bank. In January 1974, Denny Walsh of the New York Times reported that Seymour Alter, who had hosted Nixon in 1962 on the first of the President's many visits to the Bahamas, was under investigation on suspicion of "skimming" funds from the Paradise Island Casino through the Key Biscayne Bank.

        In February 1974, testifying in a deposition in a lawsuit by Common Cause against the Nixon re‑election committee, Rebozo swore that the only person he had told about the $100,000 during the time he was holding it was the President's secretary, Rose Mary Woods. In March Rebozo was interrogated for two long days by the Senate Committee. It had been reported that Rose Mary Woods, while confirming that Bebe had mentioned a secret contribution he was holding, did not tell her the money was from Hughes nor that it totaled $100,000. Bebe insisted that he had told her all about the $100,000, and advised her to instruct his lawyer that in the event of his death, the money should be turned over to the re‑election committee. "I don't think there is any discrepancy," Bebe told the Senate Committee, but when you are asked to relate details of matters that occurred years ago, there are bound to be discrepancies."

          The possible extent of the "discrepancies" was revealed a month later, in April, when Herbert Kalmbach, the President's former personal attorney and principal cam­paign fund raiser, while awaiting a prison sentence for violation of federal election laws, dropped a bombshell in secret testimony to Senator Sam Ervin and a few staff members. Kalmbach said Rebozo had told him that he had handed out some of the Hughes money to Miss Woods, and some to Nixon's brothers, F. Donald and Edward, "and others." Kalmbach had been called for questioning after Terry Lenzner, a young Watergate Committee counsel, had been tipped that Rebozo had talked with Kalmbach about the Hughes money shortly before it was returned. Kalmbach told Senator Ervin that he had met secretly with the Bebe at the Madison Hotel on April 30, 1973—an appointment set up under Rebozo's code name "Mr. Gregory"—after Nixon had told Rebozo to seek the attorney's advice. According to Kalmbach's sworn testimony, Bebe told him the IRS was pressing him to prove that the $100,000 was not undeclared income, and he was in a sticky position, having disbursed some of it to the President's secretary and brothers, and then sworn that he had kept it intact. Kalmbach quoted the worried Bebe as telling him: "This touches the President and the President's family, and I just can't do anything to add to his problems. . . "

        Kalmbach went on to say that after advising him to return what was left of the fund, and tell the IRS the full story, he had asked and received Bebe's permission to consult another lawyer, a tax expert, and had done so and received an opinion on the hypothetical question he presented without naming Rebozo. But the very next dayafter that eventful night of April 30th on which Nixon announced the resignations of John Ehrlichman and Bob Haldeman and the firing of John DeanKalmbach said, he saw Rebozo at the White House; the Bebe seemed more relaxed and told him cryptically that there was no longer any problem. He next met the Bebe nine months later at San Clemente, Kalmbach said, and Rebozo told him his memory must have tricked him in their earlier conversation. "Since we last talked," Bebe told Kalmbach, "I opened the safe‑deposit box and found the wrappers around the bills, and I realized that I couldn't have given any of that money out." (The $100,000 by this time had been turned over to the Senate Committee by Chester Davis, a Hughes counsel. Investigators were checking the serial numbers of the $100 bills to determine if any had been issued after the dates in question. It was reported that the original wrappers had been replaced with rubber bandsand also that an extra $100 bill had mysteriously been addedmaking it $100,100).

        Bebe Rebozo through his attorney admitted meeting Kalmbach at the White House to talk about the $100,000, but he categorically denied having said anything about giving part of it to anyone. Miss Woods and Nixon's brothers likewise denied they had received any such money from Rebozo.

            Investigators, concentrating on "who put the money back," now focused on a series of meetings in the middle of May 1973, culminating in one at Camp David between Rebozo, Danner, and Nixon himself. Sources close to the investigation said Rebozo tried to persuade Danner to replace the "missing" part of the $100,000 with a further contribution. Another theory, according to Newsweek reporters, was that the "replacement" money might have come from Robert Abplanalp. Investigators learned of a meeting in June at an up‑state New York fishing retreat, between Rebozo, Abplanalp and his lawyer Griffin. The following week, Griffin returned the supposedly intact $100,000 cash to Chester Davis, the Hughes attorney in New York. One investigator said the Committee had no adequate explanation why Griffin, to whom Rebozo had returned the $100,000, should have been connected with the matter at allunless Abplanalp himself were involved.

        Bebe Rebozo, the Florida yachtsman, was now in deep waters, and he knew it. If Herbert Kalmbach's story should be proven true, or if the Senators decided to accept his word against Rebozo's the Bebe could face possible criminal charges and a prison sentence--in which he would of course not be alone among those involved in the Watergate Scandal. Rebozo, who appeared before the Senate Committee in his seventh closed‑door session of testimony on May 10th, adopted strike‑back tactics similar to those of Dick Nixon. He filed suit in federal court alleging that the committee had obtained "false information" from Kalmbach and released it "maliciously" to the press. He charged the committee with harassment, and asked that its subpoena for his financial records be declared void. The subpoena asked him to produce any records dealing with unsecured loans to or from Richard Nixon, Tricia, Nixon Cox, and the President's two brothers, specifically between January 1, 1969, and March 31, 1974. Also sought were records of bills paid by Rebozo on behalf of the President, his brothers, or Rose Mary Woods. In fighting the subpoenas, Rebozo's attorney, William Frates, said: "He was trying to protect the President from Donald Nixon. That's tough to say, but that's the truth. To say that he (Rebozo) would take money from Howard Hughes and give it to Donald Nixon is incredible!"

        While the House Judiciary Committee was proceeding with its impeachment hearings, the Senate Watergate Committee pushed ahead with its investigation. The IRS agreed to let the committee staff inspect the income tax returns of Bebe Rebozo and Donald Nixon. Subpoenas were issued for the President's two brothers. And a new "bagman" operation involving the Bebe was revealed, when the Senate Committee disclosed that A.D. Davis, vice‑president of the Winn‑Dixie food chain, had given Rebozo a secret contribution of $50,000 before the 1972 presidential campaign. A committee source said Rebozo had in his possession a letter from former Commerce Secretary Maurice H. Stans, Nixon's re‑election fund raiser, acknowledging receipt of the $50,000. This contradicted a story in the Washington Post, quoting "informed sources" as saying that the money had never reached the re‑election committee. Rebozo told investigators he had handed the $50,000 cash in an envelope to Frederick C. LaRue, one of the campaign officials who has pleaded guilty to obstructing justice.

        Press reports in mid‑May quoted Senate investigators as saying they believed the $100,000 contribution by Howard Hughes supplied the "missing motive" for the Watergate break‑in itself, and thus stood at the very heart of the whole mess. According to these sources, Nixon's re‑election committee feared it would be disclosed that the then Attorney General John Mitchell had "tampered" with an anti‑trust case involving the Dunes Hotel in Las Vegas. The GOP campaign officials, it was reported, were afraid that Lawrence M. O'Brien, the Democratic National Chairman, knew about this matter, because he had formerly been a public relations consultant to the Hughes organizationhence they broke into Watergate to tap O'Brien's phone and search his files.

        It was disclosed that Richard Danner had met several times with Mitchell in early 1970, to discuss anti‑trust aspects of Hughes' proposed acquisition of the Dunes. These meetings were before the second installment of $50,000 was paid. (By this time there was some confusion as to the date of the first installment paymentsome witnesses said it was in early 1970 rather than mid‑69). Assistant Attorney General Richard McLaren, head of the Anti‑trust Division, had already informed Mitchell that the proposed Hughes deal would violate the Justice Department's guidelines concerning mergers. However, soon after the Danner‑Mitchell meetingswhich were recorded in Mitchell's office log but not in the Department's filesHughes received "a high‑level go‑ahead." Ironically, Hughes never did buy the Dunes.

        On June 7th, Bebe Rebozo was still further implicated in Watergate, in secret testimony "leaked" by the Senate investigators. Lawrence M. Higby, formerly one of Bob Haldeman's chief assistants in the White House, testified that President Nixon told Haldeman on or about April 30, 1973, the day Haldeman resigned, that a secret fund would be made available for Haldeman's defense in the Watergate case. According to Higby, the President told Haldeman the money was being kept by Bebe Rebozo, and that as much as $400,000 was available. Gerald L. Warren, the deputy White House press secretary, refused to confirm or deny this latest revelation, merely taking occasion to condemn the Senate Committee for its "leaks" to the press.

        In an amended complaint to their suit in federal court seeking to stop the committee from probing Rebozo's affairs, the Bebe's attorneys charged that the committee's special investigators were using "calculated deceits" to induce committee members to keep on investigating the embattled Florida banker. They also charged that Herbert Kalmbach bad given "false testimony" and violated the attorney‑client privilege when he testified about his conversations with Rebozo.

        On June 17th, Herbert Kalmbach was sentenced to six to 18 months in jail and fined $10,000 for his election law violations.

        On June 18th, with the House impeachment committee hearings in full blast, the Senate Watergate Committee announced it had decided to complete its report without reaching any conclusions about President Nixon's role in the scandal. "Time has passed us by," Vice‑Chairman Howard H. Baker Jr. (R‑Tenn.) said, referring to the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment proceedings. "There will be no separate section on presidential involvement, in our report."

        The committee also voted to wind up its work without further investigation of the activities of Bebe Rebozo or the President's two brothers. The committee rejected a motion that subpoenas for Rebozo and the Nixons should be quashedbut at the same time Chairman Sam Ervin said the panel had no intention of citing them for contempt of Congress for refusing to testify further.

        It was revealed in June that Rebozo had sold his Key West‑based Monroe Land and Title Company for an undisclosed amount, to the First Federal Savings and Loan Association of the Florida Keys. A spokesman for the purchaser said the negotiations had begun in August 1973. At the same time it appeared that Rebozo's banking monopoly on Key Biscayne might be breaking up. It was reported that Rebozo had been talking merger with the Southeast Banking Corp. and other financial institutions.

        On June 22nd, the Senate Watergate Committee staff investigators, in a 47‑page report to the Senators, stated that the second $50,000 contribution from Hughes was set in motion after John Mitchell secretly approved the $35 million Hughes bid to buy the Dunes Hotel. The investigators called the Attorney General's action "a classic case of governmental decision‑making for friends."

        It was duly noted that the money was delivered to Rebozo by Danner, the same Hughes agent who had dealt with Mitchell about the Dunes purchase. "As the evidence indicates, the apparent decision by Mitchell to approve the Dunes purchase is clothed with the appearance of impropriety," the report said. Investigation continued as to whether the $100,000 Hughes donation was actually a political contribution, or was for Nixon's personal use, in the pattern of the classic "slush fund."

        On June 25th, Bebe Rebozo turned up in Brussels, Belgium, where the President, on his way to the summit conference at Moscow, was attending a meeting of NATO allies. He bad arrived secretly but was spotted by reporters. The President's press secretary said the Bebe had been in Brussels for about a week, on a combined business and vacation trip, and had dropped by briefly to visit Nixon at the U.S. Embassy. Rebozo refused to talk to newsmen.

        Testifying in his $17.5 defamation suit against the Hughes‑owned Summa Corporation in Los Angeles, Robert Maheu, deposed chief of the Hughes Nevada operations. supplied further details of the maneuvers leading to the $100,000 campaign gift in Rebozo's care. Maheu testified that the $100,000 was originally pledged for Nixon's 1968 campaign, but the "first attempt" to deliver the initial $50,000 was not made until a month after the election, and the money did not get to Rebozo until mid‑1969.

        "Why did it take so long?" asked U.S. District Judge Harry Pregerson. "The injection of third persons," Maheu replied. He explained that the contribution originally was solicited by Richard Danner, who in 1968 was a Nixon campaign fund‑raiser assigned to the Miami area. He testified that Danner and Rebozo consulted with another ex‑FBI agent, Washington attorney Edward P. Morgan, on how the delivery should be made. Morgan, according to Maheu, insisted that a receipt must be obtained, to insure that Nixon knew the money came from Hughes. When he was told that a receipt could not be furnished, Morgan refused to act as intermediary, Maheu said. Later the names of Donald Nixon and John H. Meier, at that time a Hughes aide, were discussed as intermediaries, but dropped; finally Danner gave the money in cash to Rebozo himself.
        Editor's Notes about Edward P. Morgan:
        Edward Pierpont Morgan was born in Missouri in 1913. His father, who had apparently changed his own name from John Cleveland Morgan to John Pierpont Morgan, was a high school teacher and principal. Edward went to college in northwest Missouri, then to law school at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. during 1936-39. Upon graduation he joined the FBI in 1940 and though he had excellent reviews and was advancing quickly, resigned abruptly in 1947. Only a year after entering the FBI, Morgan received a censure, along with a number of other agents who had been subpoenaed to Miami to work with SAC Sackett's office. These men all decided to stay at the same place, the Helen Mar Villas on Miami Beach. A memorandum addressed to Director Hoover concerning nine agents, including Gilbert H. Meyer, A. Dickstein, W. C. Fuller,  R. A. Lapachet, Daniel L. O'Connor, and Edward P. Morgan was dated July 25, 1941. During July 1941 Miami Beach police were called on two separate occasions by nearby residents who complained about excessive noise at parties being given by the agents. 
        Strangely enough, two stories appeared in the news during this time. The first was on July 7, 1941 under the headline: "La Paloma Club Stock Traced to Fred Pine." (Pine had been a Miami attorney working with Al Capone during the gangster's attempt to live on Palm Island, Florida in 1929-30, but by 1942 was engaged in private practice at 117 NE 1st Avenue (two blocks from the FBI offices) and living in Coconut Grove at 2667 S. Bayshore.) The trial had resumed on July 6 after a four-day holiday. It was during that time the first loud party had occurred. It looks as if these agents had been subpoenaed to testify at this trial about statements made to FBI agents in March 26, 1940 by Al Youst at the time of his arrest.
        The second article appeared on July 16, 1941 regarding the son of the Russian-born owner of the Helen Mar Villas,John Marsa, and an embarrassing dispute with his draft board in which both the FBI and the Miami police became involved. Could the Marsa family, who lived on the premises at 4101 Collins Avenue, have been responsible for calling police about the noise? Is there any chance Samuel Marsa's arrest for not appearing for induction was an act of retaliation?
        Although Edward Pierpont Morgan did receive a censure from the Bureau, he was the newest agent present at the scene and did not receive a cut in pay. Instead, he was made the SAC of the Kansas City office in 1943 and later sent to the Washington, D.C. office where he was promoted to Inspector and worked somewhat closely with both Hoover and Tolson. In fact, he was told he would be groomed to be SAC for San Francisco, a plum he refused, much to the chagrin of Hoover. Within six months, however, he indicated to the Director that he had changed his mind and would consider such a move. Pleased with this news, Director Hoover okayed Morgan to serve as associate counsel of the Joint Congressional Committee which investigated the Pearl Harbor Attack. Almost as soon as its report was issued, Morgan was told to report to San Francisco as the Special Agent in Charge, at which point he again refused, saying he would enter private practice.
         Morgan left the Bureau to enter private practice in Washington, D.C. for Welch, Mott and Morgan, a law firm handling radio and television licenses and related communications matters. He also was chief counsel to the Senate's subcommittee on foreign relations. In 1951 Morgan became acting chief of enforcement of the Office of Price Stabilization under President Truman.
        Another Missouri native was Morris A. Shenker, reputed attorney for Pendergast criminal interests, who later acquired the Dunes hotel and casino in Las Vegas. Perhaps President Roosevelt believed it was safe to bring in Harry Truman, who had been elected by the Pendergast machine to the Senate in 1934, since FDR had watched his federal judiciary prosecute the machine for election fraud after 1936.

        into Morris graduated from Washington University Law School in St. Louis in 1932 and married Lillian Koplar, a 1939 law school graduate. [See Candace O'Connor, Meet Me in the Lobby: The Story of Harold Koplar and the Chase Park Plaza.] During the time they were students, one of the lecturers was Thomas Carey Hennings, Jr., a future U.S. Senator and, for a time, the father-in-law of John Dean, Richard Nixon's future general counsel. As a congressman in 1940, Hennings' address was St. Louis' Park Plaza Hotel, 220 N, Kingshighway, where his attorney father had a rented suite. The hotel was the flagship of the Koplar real estate empire.

        Dictionary of Missouri Biography

         edited by Lawrence O. Christensen
        Mrs. Shenker's father, Samuel Koplar, son of Jewish immigrants from Minsk, had been born in St. Louis and got into building construction in the 1920s, building the Westmoreland high-rise and other projects, before beginning his most well-known project, the Chase Park Plaza Hotel in 1929, with help from her brother, Harold, whose interest in communications took them into owning KMOX (radio and television) under the umbrella of Koplar Communications, Inc. The Koplars once rented a home at 6009 McPherson, within two miles of most of the members of the G. H. Walker familythe in-laws of Prescott Bush. Morris and Lillian Shenker both worked in the municipal court as provisional judges.

           Robert Maheu further testified that he had ousted John Meier from the Hughes Nevada operations in 1969, when Bebe Rebozo relayed a White House request to Danner, for the breakup of Meier's close association with Donald Nixon. "We were requested by the White House to break up what they called a 'romance' between Mr. Meier and Mr. Donald Nixon," Maheu told the jury. He explained that Rebozo told Danner that Meier and the President's brother had traveled extensively together. Rebozo was quoted as saying that this didn't look good—"one representing Hughes and the other with the name of the President." Maheu said Rebozo asked Danner for the cooperation of the Hughes organization in putting a stop to this close association. Maheu said John Meier had originally been brought into the Hughes organization, on the payroll of Robert Maheu Associates, in 1966, when Howard Hughes, who had recently arrived on the Las Vegas scene, was trying to persuade the government to stop its underground nuclear testing in Nevada. Meier was hired because of his scientific background. At this writing he is under indictment on charges of conspiracy and tax evasion in connection with Nevada mining claims sold to Hughes. He also has been sued by the Hughes organization.

        On July 1st the Los Angeles federal court jury decided that Robert Maheu had indeed been defamed when Howard Hughes said in a 1972 telephonic press conference that he had fired Maheu "because he's a no‑good, dishonest son of a bitch and he stole me blind." The amount of damages to which Maheu is entitled will be decided in a further phase of the trial before the same jury, set for October 8th. In interim proceedings, Maheu's attorneys sought to force Summa Corporation to disclose its true financial worth, estimated in the billions.

        On July 2nd District Judge John Lewis Smith Jr. denied Bebe Rebozo's plea for an order restraining the Senate Watergate Committee from further probing into his affairs or citing him for contempt. The judge commented that the issue was now moot, since the Senate panel's authority had lapsed on June 28th and the committee had would up its investigations. Senator Sam Ervin said there was no intention to pursue the Rebozo matter any further.

        The Senate Watergate Committee on July 10th issued a massive three‑volume report on its probe of the White House scandals. The report termed Watergate "an American tragedy," and blamed it on men who shared "an alarming indifference ... to concepts of morality and public responsibility and trust."

        The committee's most potentially damaging shot against President Nixon was a special section in the 350‑page report containing the allegation that between 1968 and 1972 Bebe Rebozo had paid out some $50,000—some of it in "laundered" campaign funds—for the private benefit of the President and his family. The Senate panel charged that Rebozo had spent $45,621 from four secret trust accounts, for improvements on Nixon's Key Biscayne property, using at least $23,500 in election campaign funds to do so. Among the Bebe's benefactions, the report alleged, were an $18,435 swimming pool, an $1138 billiard table, a $3586 fireplace, a $243 Arnold Palmer putting green, and $11,979 for co[n]verting a garage into living quarters. In addition, the report claimed, Rebozo paid $4562 toward a $5650 pair of diamond earrings Nixon gave Pat for her 60th birthday two years ago. The Senate report uncovered new ground in the unraveling of Rebozo's intricate financial involvement with Nixon, and revealed part of the Bebe's closed‑door testimony. According to the committee, Rebozo had used a complex set of bank accounts in the name of his lawyer. Thomas H. Wakefield, to funnel more than $50,000 for the President's personal use; and the implication was that at least part of that sum may have come from the mysterious $100,000 cash gift of Howard Hughes.

        Relatively minor in the amount of money involved, but important for other considerations, was the allegation that Bebe had spent $4562.28 in leftover campaign funds for earrings for the First Lady. This was perceived by the committee as a graphic symbol, calling to mind the young Nixon's boast on the famous "Checkers" telecast 22 years ago, that his wife wore "a respectable Republican cloth coat." The information about the earrings also helped investigators trace the pattern by which much of Nixon's campaign funds had apparently been "laundered" for his personal use.

        The Senate report charged that the $4562.28 portion of the $5650 spent on the earrings originally came from campaign funds Rebozo had collected, and that the Bebe had attempted to disguise the source of the money by transferring it in and out of four separate Florida bank accounts. The $4562.28, the report alleged, was part of $6000 that Rebozo withdrew on April 15, 1969, from the Florida Nixon for President Committee account in his Key Biscayne Bank, and immediately deposited in a trust account in the name of attorney Wakefield. Then on June 28, 1972, the report went on, either Rebozo or Wakefield transferred $4562.28 to another Wakefield trust account in the same bank, then on the same day transferred $5000 from this account to still another Wakefield trust account in the First National Bank of Miami, and finally purchased a $5000 cashier's check payable to New York jeweler Harry Winston.

        Balance of the cost of the $5650 earrings was covered by two personal checks, one from Nixon himself for $560, the othe[r] from his personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, for $90. The earrings, containing 20 diamonds, were delivered by Winston's Washington representative, the late Don Carnavale, to Lieut. Commander Alex Larzelere, a White House aide, and the bill was marked "Please send to Rose Mary Woods." The earrings were subsequently appraised by Carnavale at $9000—the jeweler had given the President a handsome discount.

        Bebe Rebozo admitted in testimony to the committee that the $4562 had originally come from campaign funds, but contended it was partial reimbursement to him of the $6000 incidental expenses he had incurred during the 1968 campaign—and that he had made the President a gift of it for the First Lady's diamond earrings. The committee commented in its report: "This complex four‑page process of payment for this gift concealed the fact that the funds originated from contributions to the 1968 campaign, and were ultimately used by Rebozo on behalf of President Nixon."

        The report also charged that Rebozo used various trust accounts, again in the name of Thomas Wakefield, for the deposit and transfer of at least $20,000 in $100 bills, and that these funds were used to pay for part of the $45,621.15 improvements to Nixon's Key Biscayne properties.

        It was also revealed that Herbert Kalmbach had told the committee that Nixon's two brothers, Edward and Donald, had both received money from the 1968 presidential campaign funds. Kalmbach testified that a $25,000 contribution from shipping magnate D.K. Ludwig was the source of a $3000 payment to Edward Nixon, at a time when he was "between jobs." The payment, Kalmbach testified, was approved by Maurice Stans, the campaign treasurer. Kalmbach further said that after he was made trustee for $1.8 million in leftover 1968 campaign funds, he discovered that $5000 was missing from an envelope containing cash in a safety deposit box. The envelope bore the notation that $5000 had been paid to Donald Nixon for "expenses."

        The committee did not go into the question of whether any specific laws had been violated by this wholesale juggling of campaign funds for private use. Department of Justice sources told reporters that such use of campaign funds for personal expenditures is not a violation of election laws, but in some instances could be considered fraud or misappropriation. Also the committee noted it could find no records showing that the President bad paid income tax on any of these "gifts," or that Rebozo had filed the seemingly required gift tax returns. The only record of any reimbursement by Nixon to Rebozo was a check for $13,642.52, issued in August 1973, when Rebozo's affairs were being scrutinized by the IRS as well as by the Watergate Committee.

        Among other revelations about Bebe Rebozo's role as a volunteer political fund‑raiser and bagman, was a White House memorandum of February 1969, in which Nixon asked Rebozo to solicit billionaire J. Paul Getty in London for a "major" campaign contribution—three months after the President had been elected. Getty subsequently contributed $125,000 to Nixon's 1972 re‑election campaign. It was also revealed that in early 1969 Rebozo set up a special account in his Key Biscayne Bank, with Wakefield as trustee, to pay what he described as "Administration‑connected costs." This was the account from which the money for Pat's diamond earrings was withdrawn in June 1972.

        The Ervin Committee fell short in what had been the primary purpose of its investigation of Rebozo: to prove a definite link between Rebozo's expenditures in the President's behalf and the $100,000 contribution by Howard Hughes. The report alleged, but failed to provide proof, that Rebozo did not keep the $100,000 intact in a safe deposit box for three years before returning it. The report cited the testimony by Kalmbach, which Rebozo had vigorously denied, that the Bebe had told him that he gave part of the $100,000 to the President's brothers, to Rose Mary Woods, and "others." Thus Rebozo's possible manipulation of the Hughes campaign gift still remainedlike Bebe Rebozo, himself—"a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma."

        When Nixon resigned on August 8th and returned to San Clemente, among his first visitors were Bebe Rebozo and Robert Abplanalp. There was no announcement as to what they discussed, but the press noted that both of the ex‑President's millionaire friends have an interest in the San Clemente estate, on which a balloon mortgage payment of $226,440 plus $17,000 in interest is due in January 1975.

        On August 19th, Special Prosecutor Jaworski filed an affidavit in federal court in Washington, stating that evidence indicated that Bebe Rebozo had diverted at least $41,000 in Nixon campaign funds to the personal benefit of Nixon and his familyincluding the diamond earrings and the Key Biscayne home improvements. The affidavit, signed by Assistant Special Prosecutor Paul Michel, alleged that the evidence indicated that the money in question was diverted from $150,000 in Nixon campaign funds collected by Rebozo, including the $100,000 contribution by Howard Hughes and $50,000 from food‑chain magnate A.D. Davis. During the period in question, the affidavit said, Rebozo "apparently did not have sufficient cash available to make these deposits from any known source other than the campaign contributions."

        The affidavit was filed by the special prosecutor in support of the subpoenas he had issued for Rebozo's three attorneys to produce records bearing on the transactions in question, as detailed above. The trust accounts covered by the subpoenas, Michel alleged, "Were used to conceal the source of payments made at Mr. Rebozo's instructions, and to 'launder' political campaign contributions."

        Jaworski's action, a little more than two weeks before President Ford's surprise move in pardoning Nixon before he was formally accused of anything, indicated that criminal prosecutions were being contemplated. The affidavit stated that the documents sought from Rebozo's Florida attorneys would "assist the grand jury and the special prosecutor in determining whether and what currency received as political campaign contributions was subsequently used for the personal benefit of Mr. Rebozo, former President Nixon or others, and what federal criminal laws, if any, may thereby have been violated."

        On August 22nd, U. S. District Judge George L. Hart Jr., after hearing arguments, refused to quash the subpoenas, and also ordered the three attorneys, Thomas H. Wakefield, Robert Hewitt and Garth A. Webster, to testify before the grand jury. Hart's ruling was particularly important because the material that Rebozo's lawyers were ordered to produce was far more extensive than the documents the Senate Watergate Committee had been able to obtain. The attorneys had successfully invoked the attorney‑client privilege to limit the Senate inquiry. They had attempted to resist the grand jury subpoenas on the same grounds, but Judge Hart turned them down, ordering them to appear for questioning and to produce the documents Jaworski requested. Questioning was expected to center on the recollection of Wakefield, Rebozo's attorney for 20 years, of statements Rebozo made to him concerning the source of the funds, and why the transactions were handled in such a devious manner.

        A Washington Post story on August 25th reported that confidential financial statements showed that Bebe Rebozo's wealth had increased nearly seven‑fold during the first five years that his friend Nixon was President. Just before Nixon took office in 1969, Rebozo reported his net worth as $673,000. By September 1973 his net worth, largely in real estate and holdings in his bank and other companies, had jumped to $4.5 million. His 1968 income, according to his 1969 statement, was $35,800; in 1973 it was "in excess of $200,000."

        The New York Times reported in an exclusive story that a stillsecret report of the Senate Watergate Committee supported the theory, already expressed, that the Watergate break‑in and the intelligence‑gathering plot that inspired it were the end‑result of a White House effort to suppress public knowledge of the $100,000 payment to Rebozo by Howard Hughes. The 42‑page document, the only part of the committee's final report not yet released, was said to be based on an analysis by Senate staff lawyers of the millions of words of published and unpublished testimony during the panel's 18‑month investigation. The report was not released with the committee's other findings because of reported objections by the chief minority counsel, Fred D. Thompson, that it was inconclusive. It was expected to be made public later.

        According to the Times story, the evidence assembled in the unreleased report points out that the first public mention of the $100,000 Hughes contribution was made by syndicated Washington columnist Jack Anderson in August of 1971, about a year after the second installment was paid to Rebozo. Later Herman M. Greenspun, publisher of the Las Vegas Sun, tried to obtain further details, and John Ehrlichman sent Herbert Kalmbach to assure Greenspun that the Hughes funds had not entered into the San Clemente purchase‑and also to find out how much Greenspun knew about the Hughes contribution and Donald Nixon's relations with the Hughes organization.

        According to the report, the White House was greatly concerned lest some of the less easily explained details of the Hughes‑Rebozo transaction might surface to embarrass Nixon in his 1972 campaign; and it was this that inspired the Watergate break‑in, to find out what the Democratic Committee might know about it. Thus, by this theory, Bebe Rebozo and his murky activities were behind the whole Watergate mess. At this writing the grand jury investigation is still going on, and many questions remain to be answered.

        pps. 505-518


        [1]  Clare's father and his three brothers were Scottish-born tradesmen, skilled in construction crafts, who had emigrated from Glasgow during the decade between 1904 to 1914 and sometimes worked alongside or competed with another family of Scots named Orr, which included John B. Orr, a respected stucco artisan, known to the Gunn brothers. In fact, in 1918, before John relocated his wife and children to Miami from St. Louis, his brother William Gunn, was superintendent of John B. Orr, Inc. while Orr worked on the Deerings' estate at Coconut Grove. (We are reminded that Coconut Grove was where the CIA had a safe house where E. Howard Hunt was housed during planning for Bay of Pigs.) William Gunn set up his own firm with a war veteran from Toledo named Otto Goll, a company which morphed later into Gunn & Gunn, where Clare's youngest brother, William P. Gunn, dropped out of high school to work as a carpenter.

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